Per facilitare la lettura, precisiamo che i titoli degli articoli sono organizzati secondo questa successione:

1 Anno – 2 Autori – 3 Titolo – 4 Sinossi – 5 Indicazione se è disponibile l’abstract o il testo completo, rimandi (ove esistenti) a testi italiani e commenti.

Approfondimenti in italiano: Assi.SM su FacebookFondazione HilarescereMediterranews.org  – sezione Salute, CCSVI – nella – Sclerosi – Multipla, Associazione Italiana CCSVI onlus,  CCSVI nella sclerosi multipla onlusCCSVI – Campania OnlusCcsvi e Sm Lombardia Onlus 

Fonti: CCSVI Alliance, Fondazione HilarescereCCSVI nella Sclerosi MultiplaCCSVISMxoom, CCSVI-MS

2013 P. Zamboni, E. Menegatti, S. Occhionorelli, F.  Salvi The controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency The objective of this review is to analyze the actual scientific controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and its association with both neurodegenerative disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS). We revised all published studies on prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients, including ultrasound and catheter venography series. Furthermore, we take into consideration other publications dealing with the pathophysiologic consequences of CCSVI in the brain, as well as ecent data characterizing the pathology of the venous wall in course of CCSVI. Finally, safety and pilot data on effectiveness of endovascular CCSVI treatment were further updated. Full Content, sintesi commentata
2013 C. Leone, E.  D’Amico, S. Cilia, A. Nicoletti, L. Di Pino, F. Patti Cognitive impairment and “invisible symptoms” are not associated with CCSVI in MS We investigated the association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Moreover, we evaluated the association between CCSVI and other frequent self-reported MS symptoms. Full Content (provisional), sintesi commentata
2013 M. J. Joyner1, D. P. Casey Muscle Blood Flow, Hypoxia and Hypoperfusion Blood flow increases to exercising skeletal muscle and this increase is driven primarily by vasodilation in the contracting muscles. When oxygen delivery to the contracting muscles is altered by changes in arterial oxygen content, the magnitude of the vasodilator response to exercise changes. It is augmented during hypoxia and blunted during hyperoxia. Abstract, sintesi commentata
2013 S. Hametner, I.  Wimmer, L. Haider, S. Pfeifenbring, W Brück, H Lassmann Iron and neurodegeneration in the multiple sclerosis brain Iron may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) due to its accumulation in the human brain with age. Our study focused on non-heme iron distribution and the expression of the iron-related proteins ferritin, hephaestin and ceruloplasmin in relation to oxidative damage in the brain tissue of 33 MS and 30 control cases. Full Content, sintesi commentata
2013 GT Fankhauser, WM Stone, R Fu, SR Money Spiral vein graft for internal jugular bypass in a patient with multiple sclerosis and suspected chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. This is a case report of a 45 year old man with suspected CCSVI who underwent venous reconstruction after repeated angioplasties were unsuccessful in keeping the vein open. Improvement was noted after surgery until the reconstructed vein occluded. Abstract only
2013 F Mazanderani, B O’Neill, J Powell People power” or “pester power”? YouTube as a forum for the generation of evidence and patient advocacy. The authors conducted a content analysis of the 100 most viewed YouTube videos out of 4000 about CCSVI. Health professionals should engage with digital media content to understand ‘experiential-evidence’ and its importance. Full Content
2013 SA Brod, LA Kramer, AM Cohen, AD Barreto, TT Bui, JR Jemelka, K Ton, JW Lindsey, F Nelson, PA Narayana, JS Wolinsky Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: masked multimodal imaging assessment. Neurosonograhy (NS), magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and transluminal venography (TRV) were performed on subsets of people with MS. Findings do not support altered venous outflow dynamics as common in MS nor likely to contribute to the disease process. Full Content
2013 FE Diehn, KM Schwartz, CH Hunt, LJ Eckel, NG Campeau, RE Carter, JB Allred, DF Kallmes Prevalence of Incidental Narrowing of the Superior Segment of the Internal Jugular Vein in Patients Without Multiple Sclerosis. An analysis of internal jugular veins (IJV) of 164 people without MS who underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) found the superior IJV appearance occlusive or near occlusive in approximately 1/4 of the people. Abstract only
2013 P Zamboni, F Sisini, E Menegatti, A Taibi, AM Malagoni, S Morovic, M Gambaccini An ultrasound model to calculate the brain blood outflow through collateral vessels: a pilot study In an ultrasound study model of 10 people with CCSVI and 10 healthy controls, blood flow in the internal jugular vein (IJV) junction was significantly lower in the supine position in people with CCSVI. This suggests collateral veins play a pivotal role in CCSVI conditions. Full Content
2013 E Krsmanovi, M Ivkovi, T Lepi, A Stankovi, R Rai Evi, IE Din Small internal jugular veins with restricted outflow are associated with severe multiple sclerosis: a songographer-blinded, case-control ultrasound study In this ultrasound study of 67 people with MS and 21 healthy controls small internal jugular veins (IJVs) with restricted outflow were independently associated with the severity of MS. Full Content
2013 RH Benedict, B Weinstock-Guttman, K Marr, V Valnarov, C Kennedy, E Carl, C Brooks, D Hojnacki, R Zivadinov Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is not associated with cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Doppler ultrasound identified CCSVI in 58.7 % (64) of 107 people with MS. There was no evidence of an association between the presence and severity of CCSVI and cognitive impairment or depression.` Abstract only
2013 MT Rahman, SK Sethi, DT Utriainen, JJ Hewtt, EM Haacke A comparative study of magnetic resonance venography techniques for the evaluation of the internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis patients. Specialized MR techniques were used to assess extra-cranial vasculature in 170 people with MS and 40 healthy controls. One technique was better at identifying vascular anatomy but it does not provide information about blood flow. Abstract only
2013 M Juenemann, M Yeniguen, E Stolz, M Berghoff No evidence for CCSVI in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with moderate disability. No abstract available. Title Only
2013 S Laughlin, CK Macgowan, J Traubici, K Chan, S Khan, DL Arnold, RA Marrie, B Barnwell No Evidence for Impairment of Venous Hemodynamics in Children or Young Adults with Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis. CCSVI was rarely observed in 26 children or 13 young adults with pediatric onset MS. Venous outflow was intact in children with MS. Abstract only
2013 MP Quinn, M Kremenchutzky, RS Menon Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS? The presence of veins in MS lesions was noted in the earliest descriptions of the disease. Early presentation of venocentric lesions highly predicts a future diagnosis of MS. More research is needed to determine if this is a unique biomarker for MS. Full Content
2013 CY Cheng, FC Chang, AC Chao, CP Chung, HH Hu Internal jugular venous abnormalities in transient monocular blindness Comparing 23 people with transient monocular blindness (TMB) and 23 healthy controls, researchers found significantly more moderate or severe internal jugular vein (IJV) compression or stenosis in people with TMB. Cerebral venous outflow abnormality is one of the etiologies of TMB. Full Content
2013 H Ferra, G Behrens, Y Tumer, M Riemenschneider Endovascular diagnosis and management of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: retrospective analysis of 30-day morbidity and mortality in 95 consecutive patients. Venous lesions requiring treatment were found in 94.7% (90) of 95 consecutive people with MS. Evaluation and management of CCSVI 30 days post treatment found it was safe. Abstract only
2013 M Hutchinson Funding CCSVI research is/was a waste of valuable time, money and intellectual energy: Commentary. This commentary argues that there is no logic to the hypothesis of CCSVI and MS. Full Content
2013 R Zivadinov, B Weinstock-Guttman Funding CCSVI research is/was a waste of valuable time, money and intellectual energy: No. This article presents arguments supporting the need to continue to pursue research on CCSVI in MS and other neurological diseases. Full Content
2013 A Ghezzi Funding CCSVI research is/was a waste of valuable time, money and intellectual energy: Yes. This article presents arguments for not pursuing research on CCSVI. A scientific cause and effect relationship between CCSVI and MS has not been proven. Full Content
2013 K Dolic, AH Siddiqui, Y Karmon, K Marr, R Zivadinov The role of noninvasive and invasive diagnostic imaging techniques for detection of extra-cranial venous system anomalies and developmental variants This review (with numerous illustrations) summarizes current knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of both invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities to detect extra-cranial venous anomalies and developmental variants associated with CCSVI. The role of the anomalies in MS, other neurological diseases and aging remains unproven. Full Content
2013 EJ van Zuuren, Z Fedorowicz, E Pucci, V Jagannath, EW Robak Percutaneous transluminal angiplasty for treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in people with multiple sclerosis: a summary of a Cochrane systematic review. A Cochrane review found there is currently no high level of evidence to support or refute the safety or effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for treatment of CCSVI in people with MS. Abstract only
2013 Z Mezei, L Olah, L Kardos, RK Kovacs, L Csiba, T Csepany Cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes in multiple sclerosis patients during head-up tilt table test: effect of high-dose intravenous sterioid treatment. In 30 people with MS (11 with acute relapses treated with corticosteroids) compared to 10 healthy controls, researchers found cerebrovascular autoregulation impairments were detectable in early MS. Steroid treatment had a signifcant effect on hemodynamic changes in acute relapses. Abstract only
2013 S Elsankari, O Baledent, V van Pesch, C Sindic, Q de Broqueville, T Duprez Concomitant analysis of arterial, venous, and CSF flows using phase-contrast MRI: a quantitative comparison between MS patients and healthy controls. Phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI) compared CSF, venous and arterial flows of 19 people with MS and 21 healthy controls. No significant differences in venous cerebral or cervical outflow were observed. There was an unexpected decrease in arterial perfusion in people with MS which needs further study. Abstract only
2013 J Wuerfel Multiple sclerosis, blood flow, and CSF circulation. No abstract available. Title Only
2013 S Gianesini, E Menegatti, F Mascoli, F Salvi, S Bastianello, P Zamboni The omohyoid muscle entrapment of the internal jugular vein. A still unclear pathogenetic mechanism In this case report of a person with MS and CCSVI the omohyoid muscle was externally compressing the internal jugular vein. Two years after surgical correction no relapses,an improved EDSS and absence of chronic fatigue were noted. Full Content
2013 R Djordje, I Nenad, K Jovo, S Dragan, A Želimar, T Slobodan, A Nikola, B Srdjan, O Petar Incidence and distribution of extravascular compression of extracranial venous pathway in patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis In 51 people with MS and CCSVI significant (> 70%) extravascular compression was found in 26 people (51%). This compression was primarily caused by a specific area of cervical vertebrae. Full Content
2013 M Simka, D Hubbard, AH Siddiqui, MD Dake, SJA Sclafani, M Al-Omari, CG Eisele, ZJ Haskal, T Ludyga, ZV Miloševič, H Sievert, MK Stehling, S Zapf, M Zorc Catheter venography for the assessment of internal jugular veins and azygous vein: Position statement by expert panel of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease This article by members of the International Society of Neurovascular Disease (ISNVD) presents current technique and interpretation of catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, azygous vein and other veins draining the central nervous system. Abstract only
2013 S Zagaglia, S Balestrini, E Perticaroli, MC Danni, S Luzzi, M Silvestrini, L Provinciali Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: dichotomy between subjective and objective outcome scores. Objective and subjective outcome measures utilized 12 months after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in 44 people with MS and CCSVI reflect different outcomes of PTA. For example, the objective measures noted disability worsening after PTA, but the Multiple Sclerosis-Quality of Life-54 Scale (MS-QoL-54) found improvements in physical and mental health. Abstract only
2013 CB Beggs Venous hemodynamics in neurological disorders: an analytical review with hydrodynamic analysis This paper reviews venous abnormalities in MS, leukoaraiosis, and normal- pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). CCSVI appears to be associated with MS but its role in the pathology of MS is unclear. Full Content
2013 A Ganesh, FW Stahnisch On the Historical Succession of Vessel-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis This is an exploration of vascular hypotheses regarding MS since the 1930s. Vessel based therapies that have been studied include anti-coagulation drugs,vasodilatory drugs, surgical interventions, the Swank low fat diet and CCSVI. Full Content
2013 D Radak, J Kolar, D Sagic, N Llijevski, S Tanaskovic, N Aleksic, J Marinkovic, A Mitrasinovic, S Radak, S Babic, P Matic, H Vlajinac Percutaneous angioplasty of internal jugular and azygous veins in patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: early and mid-term results. Endovascular treatment of the azygous and internal jugular veins (IJV) of 72 people with MS and CCSVI found that the procedure was safe, signifcantly improved flow of the IJVs and reduced EDSS scores. Abstract only
2013 M D’haeseleer, C Steen, JM Hoogduin, MJ van Osch, Y Fierens, M Cambron, MW Koch, J DeKeyser Performance on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and cerebral blood flow in multiple sclerosis. This study of 18 people with MS and 10 healthy controls suggests that performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) was linked to cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a specific part of the brain involved in information processing speed and working memory. Abstract only
2013 M Ota, N Sato, Y Nakata, K Ito, K Kamiya, N Maikusa, M Ogawa, T Okamoto, S Obu, T Noda, M Araki, T Yamamura, H Kunugi Abnormalities of cerebral blood flow in multiple sclerosis: A pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI study. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in 27 people with MS and 24 healthy volunteers using a special MRI technique, arterial spin labeling (ASL). Reduced CBF bilaterally in the thalami and right frontal region of the brain was found in people with MS. Abstract only
2013 K Saiki, T Tsurumoto, K Okamoto, T Wakebe Relation between bilateral differences in internal jugular vein caliber and flow patterns of dural venous sinuses The internal jugular veins (IJV), sizes of the left and right transverse sinuses (TS), and the drainage patterns of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) were evaluated in 91 cadavers. A relationship was found among these components that impact the diameter of the IJVs. Full Content
2013 W Pryse-Phillips, M Stefanelli, K Murphy-Peddle, B Barrett An observational study of venoplasty in patients with multiple sclerosis. Objective, semi-objective and subjective measures found no objective improvement at one year in 30 people who had venoplasty. Many people (about half) reported a degree of subjective improvement. Abstract only
2013 SM Levine, M Bilgen, SG Lynch Iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis: an early pathogenic event. Iron deposition is an early pathological event in MS. Identifying the mechanisms of iron accumulation and determining if it promotes MS pathogenesis are important areas of future research. Abstract only
2013 J Oh, P O’Connor Clinical outcomes in multiple sclerosis patients following venous angioplasty. No abstract available. Title Only
2013 R Zivadinov, C Magnano, R Galeotti, C Schirda, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, K Marr, I Bartolomei, J Hagemeier, M Malagoni, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, C Beggs, F Salvi, P Zamboni Changes of Cine Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Treated with Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty: Case-control Study. Angioplasty improved cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and decreased CSF velocity in this study of 15 people with RRMS and CCSVI. The changes in CSF flow and velocity were linked to better clinical and MR outcomes and were indicative of improved venous drainage. Abstract only
2013 V Mehta, W Pei, G Yang, S Li, E Swamy, A Boster, P Schmalbrock, D Pitt Iron Is a Sensitive Biomarker for Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions In an exploration of the role of lesional iron in MS, researchers found iron was a specific biomarker for inflammation. This may provide important information on disease status and treatment efficacy. Full Content
2013 BHJ Juurlink The Evidence for Hypoperfusion as a Factor in Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Development This article reviews the evidence on reduced blood flow (hypoperfusion) in the brain as a factor in the development of MS lesions. Clinical trials addressing vascular issues should examine the impact of interventions on white matter perfusion recovery and functional clinical outcomes. Full Content
2013 N Mistry, J Dixon, E Tallantyre, C Tench, R Abdel-Fahim, T Jaspan, PS Morgan, P Morris, N Evangelou Central Veins in Brain Lesions Visualized With High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pathologically Specific Diagnostic Biomarker for Inflammatory Demyelination in the Brain. After a diagnosis of possible MS, 7 Telsa MRI revealed central veins in the majority of lesions in people who were eventually diagnosed with MS. Central veins were not present in the majority of lesions of people who were not diagnosed with MS. 7-T MRI had 100% positive and negative predictive value for the diagnosis of MS. Abstract only
2013 R Lanzillo, M Mancini, R Liuzzi, O Di Donato, E Salvatore, V Maglio, G Vacca, L Amato, G D’Anna, A Brunetti, V Brescia Morra Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a highly prevalent age-dependent phenomenon Three independent examiners evaluated 146 people with MS (CIS, RRMS, SPMS and PPMS) and 38 healthy controls (HC) using Doppler sonography. CCSVI was found in 76% of people with MS and 16% of HCs. CCSVI in people with MS appeared to be associated with age but not with the clinical course of the disease. Full Content
2013 A Coteanu, S Gusti, C Coteanu The value of Doppler cerebral parameters to assess a group of patients with multiple sclerosis This study of cerebral venous hemodynamics in 27 people with MS and 30 healthy controls found 60% of people with MS had persistent reflux in the internal jugular vein. This was significant in the pathology of MS. Full Content
2013 D Imperiale, F Melis, C Giaccone, M Guido, E Milano, C Buffa, L Appendino Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: A sonographer-blinded case-control study. This doppler ultrasound study of 80 people with MS, 41 healthy controls and 40 people with other neurological diseases found no association between CCSVI and MS. A weak association between internal jugular vein stenosis and MS was found. Abstract only
2013 D Pullman, A Zarzeczny, A Picard “Media, politics and science policy: MS and evidence from the CCSVI Trenches” A health journalist, health law and policy scholar and a medical ethicist present perspectives on the CCSVI debate. Full Content
2013 A Ghezzi, P Annovazzi, M Amato, E Capello, P Cavallo, E Cocco, M Falcini, A Gallo, F Patti, P Perini, M Rodegher, M Rovaris, M Rottoli, G Comi, the MS Study Group–Italian Society of Neurology Adverse events after endovascular treatment of chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in patients with multiple sclerosis. This study to evaluate clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment (ET) for CCSVI found 15 of 462 people exerienced serious adverse events (SAE). Jugular vein thrombosis (in 7 people) appeared to be the most prevalent SAE. There was 1 death 10 weeks after ET. Abstract only
2013 T Kau, M Taschwer, H Deutschmann, M Schönfelder, JR Weber, KA Hausegger The “central vein sign”: is there a place for susceptibility weighted imaging in possible multiple sclerosis? Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) adds diagnostic information in people with possible MS. The “central vein sign” (CVS) was found predominantly in MS lesions and helps discriminate between MS and non-MS lesions. Abstract only
2013 JM Valdueza, F Doepp, SJ Schreiber, BW van Oosten, K Schmierer, P Friedemann, MP Wattjes What went wrong? The flawed concept of cerebrospinal venous insufficiency This is a comprehensive review and overview of the methodological flaws and pathophysiological implausibility of the ‘CCSVI’ concept. There is no basis to diagnose or treat ‘CCSVI’ outside of scientific research. Full Content
2013 MA Leone, O Raymkulova, P Naldi, P Lochner, L Bolamperti, L Coppo, A Stecco, W Liboni Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Is Not Associated with Multiple Sclerosis and Its Severity: A Blind-Verified Study Blinded Doppler exams of 68 people with MS and 68 healthy controls detected CCSVI in 21 people with MS (30.9%) and 23 (33.8%) of controls. Prevalence of CCSVI was related to age in people with MS but not in controls. Full Content
2013 A Ghezzi, P Annovazzi, E Cocco, G Coarelli, A Lugaresi, M Rovaris, F Patti, E Capello, ME Rodegher, L Moiola, S Malucchi, G Salemi, N De Rossi, L Provinciali, P Perini, R Bergamaschi, et al, The MS Study Group–Italian Society of Neurology Endovascular treatment of CCSVI in patients with multiple sclerosis: clinical outcome of 462 cases. Endovascular treatment (ET) of 462 people with MS was assessed by structured questionnaire before and an average of 31 weeks after ET. The average EDSS remained unchanged and 98 people (21%) experienced a relapse. Serious adverse events were recorded in 3.2% of cases. Abstract only
2013 BB Lee Venous embryology: the key to understanding anomalous venous conditons This is a detailed review of the development of venous malformations in embryos. They can explain many defects resulting in venous anomalies later in life that may have serious hemodynamic consequences. Full Content
2013 CA Habib, D Utriainen, J Peduzzi-Nelson, E Dawe, J Mattei, Z Latif, K Casey, EM Haacke MR imaging of the yucatan pig head and neck vasculature. The cerebral venous drainage of 3 pigs was assessed to evaluate them for use as a probable model to test whether extracranial venous abnormalities may play a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS. Abstract only
2013 G Comi, MA Battaglia, A Bertolotto, M Del Sette, A Ghezzi, G Malferrari, M Salvetti, MP Sormani, L Tesio, E Stolz, G Mancardi Italian multicentre observational study of the prevalence of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis (CoSMo study): rational, design, and methodology. This is a description of the methodology and design of the Italian blinded CoSMo study to identify the prevalence of CCSVI in 2000 adults. Abstract only
2013 R Alroughani, S Lamdhade, A Thussu Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: A retrospective study. 45 people with RRMS who had percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) were followed for 1 year after the procedure. PTA was not associated with any neurological improvement. Abstract only
2013 W McAuliffe, AG Kermode Mystery of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: Identical Venographic and Ultrasound Findings in Patients with MS and Controls. No differences were detected in 30 people with MS and 10 controls who underwent sonography. Normal physiological narrowing is very common in the internal jugular veins of healthy people. Abstract only

 

Dec-2012 EJ van Zuuren, Z Fedorowicz, E Pucci, VA Jagannath, EW Robak Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in multiple sclerosis patients. This Cochrane Review found there is currently no high level of evidence to support or refute the efficacy or safety of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for CCSVI in people with MS. Well designed controlled trials are needed. Abstract only
Dec-2012 MI Gaitán, P Sati, SJ Inati, DS Reich Initial investigation of the blood-brain barrier in MS lesions at 7 telsa. An MRI study of lesion formation in 8 people with MS found most lesions (73%) formed around a vein. Data support the idea that lesions grow outward from a central vein. Abstract only
Dec-2012 MI Gaitán, MP de Alwis, P Sati, G Nair, DS Reich Multiple sclerosis shrinks intralesional, and enlarges extralesional, brain parenchymal veins. The size of some veins examined in the brains of 19 people with MS and 9 healthy controls found smaller veins within MS lesions. Veins located around and outside lesions in people with MS were larger than the veins in people without MS. Abstract only
Dec-2012 O Dolezal, D Horzkovz, Z Gdovinovz, J Szilasiovz Serious Complication of Percutaneous Angioplasty with Stent Implantation in so Called “Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency” in Multiple Sclerosis Patient This is a case report of a 51 year old woman treated for CCSVI. Two implanted stents dislocated on the right and thrombosis occurred in the left stent. Her EDSS worsened after the procedure. Furthur complications are possible. Restricting treatment is urged. Full Content
Dec-2012 N Carraro, G Servillo, VM Sarra, A Bignamini, G Pizzolato, M Zorzon Optic Nerve and its Arterial-Venous Vascularization: An Ultrasonologic Study in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Healthy Controls. Optic nerve arteries and veins were examined by ultrasound in 46 people with RRMS (22 with previous optic neuritis, ON) and 37 healthy controls. No significant differences in flow variables were found between people with MS (including those with previous ON) and healthy controls. Abstract only
Dec-2012 PM Bavera, GB Agus, D Alpini, P Cecconi, A Guazzoni, A Tori, E Constantin, T Lupatelli Results from 823 consecutive Duplex exams for CCSVI in a Vascular Centre In a study of 823 people with MS and 60 controls, CCSVI was diagnosed in 90% of people with MS and 0% of controls. Of the 127 people examined after treatment for CCSVI, 69% (88) were negative for CCSVI. This was associated with symptom improvement. Abstract only
Dec-2012 AD Baretto, SA Brod, TT Bui, J Jemelka, L Kramer, K Ton, A Cohen, JW Lindsey, F Nelson, PA Narayana, JS Wolinsky Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: Case-Control Neurosonography Results Examinations found 3.88% of 206 people with MS had CCSVI and 7.14% of 70 people without MS had CCSVI. No significant differences were found between people with and without MS for extracranial or intracranial venous flow rates. Full Content
Dec-2012 S Anand, A Bhatia, Rajkumar, H Sapra, V Gupta, Y Mehta Dexmedetomidine for monitored anesthesia care in patients undergoing liberation procedure for multiple sclerosis: An observational study Dexmedetomidine, an anesthetic, was used in 60 people with MS who underwent angioplasty. Continuous monitoring found it could be used as the sole sedative for the procedure. Full Content
Dec-2012 L Grozdinski, I Petrov, M Iloska Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency diagnostics Doppler ultrasound examinations of 138 people with MS and 40 controls identified CCSVI in 89% of people with MS and 10% of controls. Ultrasound was highly sensitive and accurate for a diagnosis of CCSVI. Abstract only
2012 AM Al-Radaideh, SJ Wharton, SY Lim, CR Tench, PS Morgan, RW Bowtell, CS Constantinescu, PA Gowland Increased iron accumulation occurs in the earliest stages of demyelinating disease: an ultra-high field susceptibility mapping study in Clinically Isolated Syndrome. The amount of iron in the deep gray matter of 19 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS was compared to that of 20 healthy controls. People with CIS showed increased accumulation of iron, suggesting that iron changes occur in early CIS. Abstract only
2012 PJ Van den Berg, GB Van den Berg, LW Westerhuis, LH Visser Occurrence of CCSVI in patients with MS and its relationship with iron metabolism and varicose veins. Colour Doppler showed CCSVI in 8 (9%) of 90 people with MS and 0 in 41 healthy controls. No relationship was found between CCSVI and impaired iron metabolism. CCSVI is uncommon and related to more neurological disability and the presence of varicose veins. Abstract only
2012 T Lupattelli, F Benassi, E Righi, P Bavera, G Bellagamba Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in a patient with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and persistent left superior vena cava. This is a case report of a 57 year old person with CCSVI in whom the drainage from the left IJV to the right atrium occurred through a venous anomaly, the persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). Abstract only
2012 F Scalise, M Farina, M Manfredi, C Auguadro, E Novelli Assessment of jugular endovascular malformations in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: colour-Doppler scanning and catheter venography compared with intravascular ultrasound. 45 people with MS and CCSVI diagnosed by colour- Doppler (CD) underwent catheter venography (CV) during angioplasty. 25 of them also underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). CV was significantly inferior to CD in detecting jugular endoluminal malformations (JEM). CD was useful for correct treatment. Abstract only
2012 M Denislic, Z Milosevic, M Zorc, IZ Ravnik, O Mendiz Disability caused by multiple sclerosis is associated with the number of extra cranial venous stenoses: possible improvement by venous angioplasty. Results of a prospective study. This open label study of 94 people with MS and CCSVI who underwent catheter venography dilation found the number of venous narrowings was associated with more disabilty. A significant improvement in clinical disability was observed in people with RRMS who were treated. Abstract only
2012 D Davalos, JK Ryu, M Merlini, KM Baeten, N Le Moan, MA Petersen, TJ Deerinck, DS Smirnoff, C Bedard, H Hakozaki, S Gonias Murrary, JB Ling, H Lassman, JL Degen, MH Ellisman, K Akassoglou Fibrinogen-induced perivascular mircroglial clustering is required for the development of axonal damage in neuroinflammation In a study of mice, researchers found fibrinogen, a marker of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption and regulator of inflammatory demyelination, was required for perivascular cluster formation, preceded demyelination, and, was required for axonal damage in neuroinflammation. These vascular changes (leakage of fribrin) may be the trigger for MS. Full Content
2012 EM Haacke, M Li, F Juvvigunta Tissue similarity maps (TSMs): A new means of mapping vascular behavior and calculating relative blood volume in pefusion weighted imaging. Tissue similarity maps (TSMs) may be a new way to study blood flow patterns in brain tissue and to better diagnose vascular differences between tissue and lesions. Abstract only
2012 R Zivadinov, SJ Alexander, A Minagar Vascular pathology of multiple sclerosis This editorial identifies current concepts and recent findings concerning the evaluation, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance of the vascular pathology of MS. Full Content
2012 S Morovic, P Zamboni CCSVI is associated with multiple sclerosis. A recent meta-analysis assessed an over 13 times increased prevalence of CCSVI in MS. Global hypoperfusion of the brain and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics were shown to be related to CCSVI. Autopsy studies show a higher prevalence of intraluminal defects in the main extracranial vein in people with MS compared to controls. Abstract only
2012 D Utriainen, G Trifan, S Sethi, S Elias, J Hewett, W Feng, EM Haacke Magnetic resonance imaging signatures of vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis. State of the art MRI imaging methods in people with MS and CCSVI include assessing vascular structure, flow and brain iron content. Abstract only
2012 CI Diaconu, SM Staugaitis, RJ Fox, A Rae-Grant, C Schwanger, JM McBridge A technical approach to dissecting and assessing cadaveric veins pertinent to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis This article describes the techniques and findings in the examination of veins relevant to CCSVI in cadavers (10 with MS and 10 controls). Full Content
2012 W Feng, D Utriainen, G Trifan, S Elias, S Sethi, J Hewett, EM Haacke Characteristics of flow through the internal jugular veins at cervical C2/C3 and C5/6 levels for multiple sclerosis patients using MR phase contrast imaging. MRI 3 T imaging assessed 323 people with MS. 100 (31%) were non-stenotic (NST) and 223 (69%) were stenotic (ST). Total blood flow through the IJVs at both the C2/3 and C5/6 levels was reduced in the ST group compared to the NST group. Abstract only
2012 Y Karmon, M Ramanathan, A Minagar, R Zivadinov, B Weinstock-Guttman Arterial, venous and other vascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis. This article reviews vascular risk factors with emphasis on lipid abnormalities reported to be associated with MS. Abstract only
2012 R Zivadinov, B Weinstock-Guttman Role of Venoplasty for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: Value of Open-label Studies and Surrogate Treatment Outcomes. No abstract available. Title Only
2012 P Zamboni, A Bertolotto, P Boldrini, P Cenni, R D’Alessandro, R D’Amico, M Del Sette, R Galeotti, S Galimberti, A Liberati, L Massacesi, D Papini, F Salvi, S Simi, A Stella, L Tesio, MG Valsecchi, G Filippini Efficacy and safety of venous angioplasty of the extracranial veins for multiple sclerosis. Brave Dreams Study (Brain Venous Drainage Exploited Against Multiple Sclerosis): study protocol for a randomized clinical trial 679 people with MS and CCSVI will be enrolled in a randomized, blinded clinical trial (with a sham arm) to assess the safety and impact of percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA) on balance, motor, sensory, visual, and bladder function, and cognitive and emotional status. Post treatment assessment at 12 months will also include information on relapse rate and EDSS. Full Content
2012 C Beggs, S Shepherd, P Zamboni Cerebral venous outflow resistance and interpretation of cervical plethysmography data with respect to the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. A specialized collar around the necks of 40 healthy controls and 44 people with CCSVI was utilized to measure cerebral venous resistance. The haemodynamics of the extracranial venous system were greatly altered in people with CCSVI. Abstract only
2012 M Simka, E Majewski, M Fortuna, M Zaniewski Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient This case report discusses the potential implications of muscular compression of an internal jugular vein. Full Content
2012 B Chambers, J Chambers, H Cameron, R Macdonell Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is not more prevalent in patients with mild multiple sclerosis: a sonographer-blinded, case-control ultrasound study. An ultraound study of 70 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or mild RRMS (EDSS = 2 or less) compared to 70 controls did not identify increased CCSVI in people with CIS or mild RRMS. An increase in variations in internal jugular veins was found in people with CIS and mild RRMS. Abstract only
2012 C Zeng, X Chen, Y Li, Y Ouyang, F Lv, R Rumzan, Z Wang Cerebral vein changes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis demonstrated by three-dimensional enhanced T (2) (*)-weighted angiography at 3.0 T. 53 people with RRMS and 53 healthy controls underwent normal and specialized MRI to examine the internal cerebral and deep medullary veins. The internal cerebral veins were abnormal in people with RRMS. Disease duration impacted deep medullary veins. Full Content
2012 M Simka Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: state of the art and research challenges This review discusses a potential vascular basis for MS and notes that well designed clinical trials are needed to validate efficacy of treatment. Full Content
2012 D Radak, S Tanaskovic, Z Antonic, J Kolar, N Aleksic, N Ilijevski Compressive syndrome of internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis: does it matter? A woman with CCSVI and MS treated with angioplasty had haemodynamic improvement despite external compression of the IJVs. Abstract only
2012 F Patti, A Nicoletti, C Leone, S Messina, E D’Amico, S Lo Fermo, V Paradisi, E Bruno, G Quattrocchi, P Veroux, L Di Pino, L Costanzo, M Zappia Multiple Sclerosis and CCSVI: A Population-Based Case Control Study Evaluation by Doppler ultrasound detected CCSVI in 28 (18.9%) of 140 people with MS, 2 (10%) of 20 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 11 (6.4%) of 172 controls and in 2 (5%) of 40 people with other neurological diseases (OND). A significant association between CCSVI and MS was found. This was more evident in people with advanced MS and suggests CCSVI could be related to MS disability. Full Content
2012 D Gemmati, G Zeri, E Orioli, FE De Gaetano, F Salvi, I Bartolomei, S D’Alfonso, C Dall’Osso, MA Leone, AV Singh, R Asselta, P Zamboni Polymorphisms in the genes coding for iron binding and transporting proteins are associated with disability, severity, and early progression in multiple sclerosis A subset of the main iron homeostasis genes were explored in 273 people with RRMS, 103 with SPMS, 38 with PPMS and 414 matched healthy controls. The gene variants examined were associated with disability, severity and early progression in people with MS. Full Content
2012 D Hubbard, D Ponec, J Gooding, R Saxon, H Sauder, M Haacke Clinical Improvement after Extracranial Venoplasty in Multiple Sclerosis After venous angioplasty treatment 259 people with MS were followed with the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) at 1 and 6 months. There were statistically significant improvements in clinical scores. Although there was one serious adverse event (which was resolved with treatment), overall the procedure was safe. Abstract only
2012 M Simka, T Ludyga, M Kazibudzki, P Latacz, M Świerad Multiple sclerosis, an unlikely cause of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: retrospective analysis of catheter venography An analysis of data from 353 people with MS, with a median disease duration of 10 years, indicated venous malformations are most likely congenital, and therefore not caused by MS. Full Content
2012 FG Garaci, S Marziali, A Meschini, M Fornari, S Rossi, M Melis, S Fabiano, M Stefanini, G Simonetti, D Centonze, R Floris Brain Hemodynamic Changes Associated with Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Are Not Specific to Multiple Sclerosis and Do Not Increase Its Severity. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT) in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) were assessed by MRI in 39 people with MS (25, 64%, had CCSVI) and 25 healthy controls (14, 54%, had CCSVI). Individuals with CCSVI showed decreased CBF and CBV. CCSVI had no effect on neurologic function or disability progression in people with MS. Abstract only
2012 L Varatharajan, TRA Lane, A Thapar, IJ Franklin, AH Davies Complications and safety of jugular and azygous angioplasty in CCSVI patients with multiple sclerosis The reporting of CCSVI treatment complication data is sparse, prone to bias and lacks long-term follow-up. Registries and controlled trials are needed to assess safety and efficacy of treatment. Abstract only
2012 M Coen, E Menegatti, F Salvi, F Mascoli, P Zamboni, G Gabbiani, ML Bochaton-Piallat Altered collagen expression in jugular veins in multiple sclerosis. Specimens from the jugular veins of people with MS and controls were examined. The IJVs of people with MS had focal thickening. It is not known if these venous alterations play a role in MS pathogenesis. Abstract only
2012 MA Williams, A Venkatesan IDEAL for CCSVI Research-Reply There are differing views on the ethics of CCSVI clinical research. The authors believe that CCSVI research can be ethically pursued with careful research methods, ethical reviews in accordance with global and local standards, and careful oversight by data safety monitoring boards. Full Content
2012 JA Reekers IDEAL for CCSVI Research The author is of the opinion that it is impossible to believe that the CCSVI hypothesis is or can be true. Given this scientific doubt any CCSVI trials are unethical and should not be performed. Full Content
2012 G Siskin Levels of Evidence Required to Determine the Benefit of Treating CCSVI to Alleviate Symptoms of MS: An interventional perspective. An interventional radiologist’s (IR’s) perspective is that prospective blinded randomized trials, approved by the FDA and demonstrating safety and efficacy, are required before CCSVI treatment may be considered as an option that may improve the lives of people with MS. Full Content
2012 PK Coyle, J Burks Levels of Evidence Required to Determine the Benefit of Treating CCSVI to Alleviate Symptoms of MS: A neurology perspective. Two neurologists outline requirements to be considered and applied in the design of CCSVI clinical trials and research. A CCSVI collaborative research initiative is in process. Full Content
2012 D Utriainen, W Feng, S Elias, Z Latif, D Hubbard, EM Haacke Using magnetic resonance imaging as a means to study chronic cerebral spinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients. MRI of 111 people with MS to assess for CCSVI structural and flow risk criteria found low total flow in the two dominant veins appeared to be the strongest indicator for risk of stenoses in people with MS. Abstract only
2012 K Mandato, M Englander, L Keating, J Vachon, GP Siskin Catheter venography and endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. This article describes endovascular techniques employed to diagnose and treat people with CCSVI and MS. Abstract only
2012 CO Hampson, GM Soares, AA Jaffan Reported outcomes after the endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. This article presents a brief review of CCSVI and its relationship to MS and reviews existing literature with a focus on outcome data. Abstract only
2012 SJ Sclafani Intravascular ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an imaging tool that is valuable in identifying and treating CCSVI. Potential complications during angioplasty may also be identified. Abstract only
2012 S McDonald, JB Iceton The use of Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. This article describes the technique used by Barrie Vascular Imaging in Ontario to assess patients for CCSVI using Doppler ultrasound. Abstract only
2012 KB Knox, ME Kelly Placebo power. A variable placebo response has been reported in people with MS. The factors and mechanisms associated with placebo should be considered in future studies of endovascular procedures for MS. Abstract only
2012 C Vera, A Herr, K Mandato, M Englander, L Ginsburg, GP Siskin Internet-based social networking and its role in the evolution of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Internet-based social networking has led to growing awareness of CCSVI and people seeking treatment. This article reviews the social networking phenomenon, resources available to people with MS and responsibilities of physicians. Abstract only
2012 MD Dake Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: history and background. This article reviews the history of the relationship between the vascular system and MS and explores basic and clinical investigations that led to the concept of CCSVI. Abstract only
2012 CB Beggs, SJ Shepherd, MG Dwyer, P Polak, C Magnano, E Carl, GU Poloni, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov Sensitivity and specificity of SWI venography for detection of cerebral venous alterations in multiple sclerosis. Forty people with MS and 22 controls underwent susceptibility- weighted imaging (SWI) venography. Altered venous vascular visibility (VVV) on SWI venography showed high sensitivity and specificity for MS. Abstract only
2012 CF Christiansen Risk of vascular disease in patients with multiple sclerosis: a review. In the first years after diagnosis this review found MS was associated with an increased risk of vascular diseases, including venous and deep venous blood clots and blood clots in the lung. Over time risk declined but remained elevated for stroke and venous clots. Abstract only
2012 L Machan, K Murphy, T Traboulsee Multiple Sclerosis and Venous Abnormalities: Medicine in the Age of Social Media. No abstract available. Title Only
2012 LG Turner Beyond ‘medical tourism’: Canadian companies marketing medical travel This article provides a content analysis of company websites of 35 Canadian businesses that market medical travel. Two companies specialize in CCSVI. Full Content
2012 T Sinnecker, I Bozin, J Dorr, CF Pfueller, L Harms, T Niendorf, AU Brandt, F Paul, J Wuerfel Periventricular venous density in multiple sclerosis is inversely associated with T2 lesion count: a 7 Tesla MRI study. 7 Tesla MRI performed on 38 people with MS and 22 healthy controls found vascular alterations in early stages of MS. Venous density was significantly less in people with MS than controls. Presumably this is a part of widespread haemodynamic and metabolic alterations. Abstract only
2012 BM Kuehn FDA Warns About the Risks of Unproven Surgical Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis The US FDA issued a safety communication to people with MS and physicians about risks associated with balloon angioplasty or stenting for CCSVI. Benefits of treatment have not been proven. Abstract only
2012 A Adamczyk-Ludyga, J Wrobel, M Simka, T Ludyga, P Latacz Retinal abnormalities in multiple sclerosis patients with associated chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Examination of the optic nerves and retina via optical coherence tomography (OCT) was done in 239 people with MS (220 with CCSVI). People with MS and unilateral stenosis of the internal jugular vein had a statistically significant higher prevalence of abnormal OCT values. Full Content
2012 M Simka Editorial [Hot Topic: New Avenues of Research on Multiple Sclerosis from the Perspective of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Paradigm (Guest Editor: Marian Simka)] This editorial outlines theoretical considerations in the relationship between CCSVI and MS. Research is still in its infancy. Full Content
2012 MN Brant-Zawadzki, DS Bandari, JJ Puangco, BB Rubin The “liberation procedure” for multiple sclerosis: sacrificing science at the altar of consumer demand. No abstract available. Title Only
2012 C Baracchini, M Atzori, P Gallo CCSVI and MS: no meaning, no fact. This review critically analyzes the scientific basis of CCSVI and concludes CCSVI appears to be an alien condition and its existence should be questioned. Abstract only
2012 R Zivadinov, G Cutter, K Marr, M Ramanathan, RHB Benedict, N Bergsland, C Morgan, E Carl, D Hojnacki, EA Yeh, L Willis, M Cherneva, C Kennedy, MG Dwyer, B Weinstock-Guttman No Association Between Conventional Brain MR Imaging and Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis MRI imaging studies and an assessment for CCSVI were conducted on 301 people, (73 healthy controls (HCs), 162 with RRMS and 66 with SPMS). CCSVI was not associated with more severe lesion load or brain atrophy in people with MS or HCs. There was a trend for more lesions and less brain volume in people with RRMS and CCSVI. Full Content
2012 TL Forbes, JR Harris, SW Kribs Surveillance and medical therapy following endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. The authors propose interim recommendations for post-procedural follow up and medical therapy until more is known about CCSVI. Abstract only
2012 B Weinstock-Guttman, M Ramanathan, K Marr, D Hojnacki, RHB Benedict, C Morgan, EA Yeh, E Carl, C Kennedy, J Reuther, C Brooks, K Hunt, M Elfadil, M Andrews, R Zivadinov Clinical correlates of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis In this study of 181 people with RRMS, 80 with SPMS, and 12 with PPMS, disability was not associated with the presence or severity of CCSVI. However, the severity of CCSVI was associated with the brainstem functional EDSS sub-score. Progressive MS (SPMS or PPMS) vs. non-progressive status (including RRMS) was associated with CCSVI. Full Content
2012 M Berghoff, M Schlamann, S Maderwald, A Grams, M Kaps, M Ladd, E Gizewski 7 Telsa MRI demonstrates vascular pathology in Balo’s concentric sclerosis. 7 Telsa MRI found microhaemorrhages and disordered veins in a 19 year old person with Balò’s concentric sclerosis (BCS is a condition related to MS). The findings may support the view that vascular pathology plays a role in BCS. Abstract only
2012 C Baracchini, JM Valdueza, M Del Sette, G Baltgaile, E Bartels, NM Bornstein, J Klingelhoefer, C Molina, K Niederkorn, M Siebler, M Sturzenegger, BE Ringelstein, D Russel, L Csiba CCSVI and MS: a statement from the European Society of neurosonology and cerebral hemodynamics. This review of CCSVI criteria found the proposed criteria are questionable due to technical and methodological errors. The European Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics (ESNCH) has concerns regarding the accuracy of the CCSVI criteria and strongly discourages treatment. Abstract only
2012 M Zaniewski, M Simka Biophysics of venous return from the brain from the perspective of the pathophysiology of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Biophysics theories suggest that CCSVI may cause destruction of central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Abstract only
2012 MM Ciccone, AI Galeandro, P Scicchitano, A Zito Multigate Quality Doppler Profiles and Morphological/Hemodynamic Alterations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. 277 people with MS underwent venous-echo-Color Doppler (ECD) ultrasound and other examinations. MS was linked to CCSVI. Blocked flow of the internal jugular veins when lying down was linked to EDSS. Further studies are needed. Abstract only
2012 MD Dake, N Dantzker, WL Bennett, JP Cooke Endovascular correction of cerebrovenous anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis: A retrospective review of an uncontrolled case series. Anomalies of the head and neck were found in 40 people with MS. Venous stents were placed in 38. Improvement in hemodynamics was associated with improved symptoms. Serious complications included 1 death and 1 person required open heart surgery. Randomized clinical trials are needed. Full Content
2012 D Alpini, PM Bavera, F Di Berardino, S Barozzi, A Cesarani Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss and chronic venous cerebrospinal insufficiency: a case report. This case report describes sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) in a person with CCSVI that improved with treatment. This may be cause or coincidence. Full Content
2012 E Wuerfel Nee Tysiak, HM Hummel, J Wuerful, J Gartner Frequent but nonspecific venous narrowing in paediatric multiple sclerosis. No abstract available. Title Only
2012 RA McTaggart, NJ Fischbein, CJ Elkins, A Hsiao, MJ Cutalo, J Rosenberg, MD Dake, G Zaharchuk Extracranial Venous Drainage Patterns in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls 20 healthy subjects and 19 people with MS underwent specialized imaging. In a blinded analysis people with MS exhibited greater flattening of their internal jugular veins (IJV) and a trend toward more non-IJV collaterals than healthy subjects. Abstract only
2012 M Amato, V Saia, B Hakiki, M Giannini, L Pastò, S Zecchino, S Lori, E Portaccio, M Marinoni No association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. An ultrasound examination of 15 subjects with pediatric-onset MS (POMS) and 16 healthy controls found CCSVI with comparable frequency in both groups. This points against a causative role for CCSVI in MS. Abstract only
2012 P Zamboni, E Menegatti, P Conforti, S Shepherd, M Tessari, C Beggs Assessment of cerebral venous return by a novel plethysmography method. In a study involving 40 healthy controls (HC) and 44 people with MS, who were further classified as CCSVI + or CCSVI – , blinded assessments of cerebral venous return were performed. The cerebral venous return of people with CCSVI was markedly different from controls. Abstract only
2012 M Simka, T Ludyga, P Latacz, M Kazibudzki Diagnostic accuracy of current sonographic criteria for the detection of outflow abnormalities in the internal jugular veins. The internal jugular veins (IJV) of 58 people with MS were assessed using Doppler sonography and catheter venography. At the current time catheter venography should be used to diagnose vascular pathology. Full Content
2012 M Blinkenberg, P Akeson, H Sillesen, S Lovgaard, F Sellebjerg, OB Paulson, HR Siebner, PS Sorenson Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and venous stenoses in multiple sclerosis. Cervical and cerebral veins were assessed in 24 people with RRMS and 15 healthy controls using Doppler ultrasound and sonography. There was no evidence to support the CCSVI hypothesis. Abstract only
2012 C Baracchini, P Gallo Fact or fiction: Chronic cerebro-spinal insufficiency This article is a critical review of the CCSVI hypothesis, its basis, the diagnostic criteria and relationship to MS. Full Content
2012 Z Sternberg Autonomic dysfunction: A unifying multiple sclerosis theory, linking chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, vitamin D(3), and Epstein-Barr virus. This review article offers evidence that the observed narrowing in cerebral veins in CCSVI arises from autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Vitamin D(3) and the Epstein-Barr virus are able to alter the functions of the autonomic nervous system. Abstract only
2012 R Beelen, L Maene, P Castenmiller, V Decoene, I Degrieck Evolution in quality of life and epidemiological impact after endovascular treatment of chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis. After endovascular treatment of CCSVI in 67 people with MS, physical health significantly improved at 3 and 6 months and mental health at 3 months. Although the baseline was still higher than preoperative, the positive results seemed to lessen over time. Full Content
2012 M Lugli, M Morelli, S Guerzoni, O Maleti The hypothesis of patho-physiological correlation between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: rationale of treatment. Ultrasound, venography and intravascular ultrasound diagnostic tests for CCSVI do not give comparable results. The pathophysiology of CCSVI is yet to be defined. After venoplasty 67% of 167 people with MS reported subjective relief of non-specific symptoms. Full Content
2012 PJ Van den Berg, LH Visser Extra- and transcranial echo colour Doppler in the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. With many studies having contradictory results, Echo colour Doppler (ECD) may not be a proper and reliable test to diagnose CCSVI. Different interpretations of CCSVI criteria may explain various results. Full Content
2012 M Mancini, VB Morra, O Di Donato, V Maglio, R Lanzillo, R Liuzzi, E Salvatore, A Brunetti, V Iaccarino, M Salvatore Multiple sclerosis: cerebral circulation time Cerebral circulation times (CCTs) were measured by Doppler ultrasound (DS) and contrast enhanced DS in 103 people with MS and 42 controls. The longest and average CCTs were substantially prolonged in people with MS compared to controls. The prevalence of CCSVI in people with MS was 77% vs. 28% in controls. Full Content
2012 J Hagemeier, M Heininen-Brown, GU Poloni, N Bergsland, CR Magnano, J Durfee, C Kennedy, E Carl, B Weinstock-Guttman, MG Dwyer, R Zivadinov Iron deposition in multiple sclerosis lesions measured by susceptibility-weighted imaging filtered phase: A case control study. 95 people with RRMS, 40 with SPMS, 19 with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and 49 healthy controls underwent susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Phase lesions, likely representing high iron content, were present in the earliest disease stages. The role of phase lesions in clinical progression is unclear and requires study. Abstract only
2012 W Atkinson, R Forghani, GR Wojtkiewicz, B Pulli, Y Iwamoto, T Ueno, P Waterman, J Truelove, R Oklu, JW Chen Ligation of the Jugular Veins Does Not Result in Brain Inflammation or Demyelination in Mice After surgically restricting the jugular veins of mice, changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inflammation, demyelination and clinical signs were not found. CCSVI as the cause of MS was not supported in this mouse model. Full Content
2012 F Salvi, I Bartolomei, E Buccellato, R Galeotti, P Zamboni Venous angioplasty in multiple sclerosis: neurological outcome at two years in a cohort of relapsing-remitting patients In 29 people with RRMS and CCSVI 44 endovascular procedures were performed. The annual relapse rate and EDSS score were significantly lower two years post procedure but both increased in 4 people. Randomized controlled clinical trials are needed. Full Content
2012 CI Diaconu, D Conway, RJ Fox, A Rae-Grant Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency as a Cause of Multiple Sclerosis: Controversy and Reality. In the authors’ opinion, the current clinical care standard is to neither evaluate nor treat CCSVI. If CCSVI is pathological in some with MS, vascular intervention will become an area of focus for therapy and monitoring. Abstract only
2012 D Radak, S Tanaskovic, D Sagic, Z Antonic, J Kolar A Case of Extrinsic Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in a Patient with Multiple Sclerosis The authors describe a rare case of CCSVI due to vein obstruction and compression by cervical vertebra. Abstract only
2012 MH Al-Omari, A Al-Bashir Internal jugular vein valve morphology in the patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI); angiographic findings and schematic demonstrations. Most of the abnormalities found in the internal jugular vein (IJV) are at the level of the jugular valve. Diagrams of the most common anomalies in the lower part of the IJV are presented. Abstract only
2012 EM Haacke, CB Beggs, C Habib The Role of Venous Abnormalities in Neurological Disease. Research has minimized the role of venous circulation. There is evidence to suggest venous anomalies may be key in several neurological diseases, including MS. A link between CCSVI and MS is reviewed. Abstract only
2012 M Zaniewski, J Kostecki, W Kuczmik, D Ziaja, G Opala, M Swiat, T Korzeniowski, E Majewski, T Urbanek, K Pawlicki Neck duplex Doppler ultrasound evaluation for assessing chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients Doppler ultrasound examination of 181 people with MS and 50 healthy controls found pathological changes in the extracranial jugular veins in 148 people with MS (82%) and 7 (14%) of controls. A correlation between inverted flow in patients in the sitting position and chronic progressive MS was found. Full Content
2012 W Feng, D Utriainen, G Trifan, S Sethi, D Hubbard, EM Haacke Quantitative flow measurements in the internal jugular veins of multiple sclerosis patients using magnetic resonance imaging 200 people with MS and 14 normal volunteers were evaluated with 3T MRI to study blood flow through the internal jugular veins (IJVs). Blood flow in the IJVs of the MS population with stenoses was reduced compared to those without. Abstract only
2012 Simka, M Possible pathomechanisms responsible for injury to the cental nervous system in the settings of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency This review considers interpretations of some of the pathology of CNS injury within the context of CCSVI. Abstract only
2012 EZ Papadaki, VC Mastorodemos, EZ Amanakis, KC Tsekouras, AE Papadakis, ND Tsavalas, PG Simos, AH Karantanas, A Plaitakis, TG Maris White matter and deep gray matter hemodynamic changes in multiple sclerosis patients with clinically isolated syndrome. This study of 30 people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 30 people with RRMS, and 30 normal controls found strong evidence that hemodynamic changes affecting both white and deep gray matter may occur at the earliest stages of MS. Abstract only
2012 R Bhatia, Abhishek, K Prasad Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: A note for caution This point of view article notes the rationale of iron deposition and MS causation remains hypothetical. More research and clinical trials are required. Full Content
2012 RF Neville, C Tornatore, J Laredo, BB Lee, AN Sidawy Observations of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Using A Multimodality Imaging Protocol Screening for CCSVI using ultrasound found 57% of 100 people with MS were positive for CCSVI. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was critical in differentiating true abnormalities from venous valvular phenomena. Full Content
2012 R Floris, D Centonze, S Fabiano, M Stefanini, S Marziali, C Del Giudice, CA Reale, M Castelli, F Garaci, M Mellis, R Gandini, D Simonetti Prevalence study of chromic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis In an ultrasonography study of 40 people with MS and 34 healthy controls CCSVI was detected in 55% of people with MS and 35% of controls. A larger sample is needed to achieve statistically significant results. Abstract only
2012 EM Haacke, W Feng, D Utriainen, G Trifan, Z Wu, Z Latif, Y Katkuri, J Hewett, D Hubbard Patients with Multiple Sclerosis with Structural Venous Abnormalities on MR Imaging Exhibit an Abnormal Flow Distribution of the Internal Jugular Veins Of the 200 people with MS studied by MR imaging, 68% (136) showed internal jugular vein (IJV) structural abnormalities, which included unilateral or bilateral stenoses. People with stenosis carried significantly less flow in the IJVs. MR imaging can noninvasively separate stenotic and non-stenotic MS cases. Abstract only
2012 M Mehta Review of CCSVI and MS for EJVES The evolution of diagnostic and treatment methods for people with MS and CCSVI will need to include multi-disciplinary collaborative efforts. Full Content
2012 R Zivadinov, F Salvi, B Weinstock-Guttman Regarding CCSVI and MS: A Never-ending story or a New Chapter? The authors respond to commentary by Dr. Reekers about MS and CCSVI. Full Content
2012 P Zamboni, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov Regarding CCSVI: Is Blinding the Key? The authors note that the MRI analysis of the CCSVI study at the Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center (BNAC) was fully blinded. Full Content
2012 PK Thibault Multiple sclerosis: a chronic infective cerebrospinal venulitis? The author hypothesizes that the venous pathology associated with CCSVI could be initiated by a respiratory infective agent, Chlamydophila pneumonia. Full Content

 

Dec-2011 K Dolic, K Marr, V Valnarov, MG Dwyer, E Carl, Y Karmon, C Kennedy, C Brooks, C Kilanowski, K Hunt, AH Siddiqui, D Hojnacki, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov Intra-and Extraluminal Structural and Functional Venous Anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis, as Evidenced by 2 Noninvasive Imaging Techniques In a study of 150 people with MS and 63 healthy controls (HC), doppler sonography found people with MS had a significantly higher number of functional and intraluminal structural abnormalities than HCs. People with progressive MS had more IJV extraluminal abnormalities. MRV was more sensitive in identifying collaterals. Full Content
Dec-2011 B Ertl-Wagner, I Koerte, T Kuempfel, A Blaschek, RP Laubender, M Schick, D Steffinger, D Kaufmann, F Heinen, M Reiser, N Alperin, R Hohlfeld Non-specific alterations of craniocervical venous drainage in multiple sclerosis revealed by cardiac-gated phase-contrast MRI This study of 27 people with MS and 27 healthy controls (HC), also compared to people with migraines, found people with MS had significantly more secondary venous drainage than HCs. Cerebral venous drainage appeared to be similar to people with chronic migraines. The authors suggest this is secondary and not primary in the pathology of the disorders. Abstract only
Dec-2011 P Zamboni, S Morovic, E Menegatti, G Viselner, AN Nicolaides Screening for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) using ultrasound–Recommendations for a protocol The variability in reported prevalence of CCSVI could be the result of differences in technique, training, experience or criteria used. A detailed protocol with standard methodology and criteria is proposed to ensure comparable accuracy among researchers. Abstract only
Dec-2011 M Simka, P Latacz, T Ludyga, M Kazibudzki, M Swierad, P Janas, J Piegza Prevalence of extracranial venous abnormalities: results from a sample of 586 multiple sclerosis patients 96.1% of 568 MS patients had venous abnormalities. Lesions in one vein were found in 43.5%, in two veins, 49.5%, and in three veins in 3.1% of patients. The clinical relevance of the data needs to be established. Full Content
Dec-2011 Y Gorucu, S Albayram, B Balci, ZI Hasiloglu, K Yenigul, F Yargic, Z Keser, F Kantarci, A Kiris Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis: a phase contrast magnetic resonance study Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics of 40 people with MS and 40 healthy controls studied with phase contrast (PC- MRI) may or may not support the venous occlusion theory. Full Content
Dec-2011 AN Nicolaides, S Morovic, E Menegatti, G Viselner, P Zamboni Screening for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) using ultrasound. Recommendations for a protocol Doppler ultrasound has produced variable results in identifying CCSVI. A standard protocol is presented to guide further research. Full Content
Dec-2011 MD Dake, R Zivadinov, EM Haacke Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a historical perspective This review provides background to understand the development of the theory of CCSVI and to frame relevant issues regarding its diagnosis and relationship to the pathology of MS. Abstract only
Dec-2011 K Dolic, K Marr, V Valnarov, MG Dwyer, E Carl, J Hagemeier, C Kennedy, C Brooks, C Kilanowski, K Hunt, D Hojnacki, B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov Sensitivity and specificity for screening of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency using a multimodal non-invasive imaging approach in patients with multiple sclerosis Using a multimodal approach of Doppler sonography (DS) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV), 2 or more venous hemodynamic CCSVI criteria were found in 64.3% (110) people with MS and in 38% (30) healthy controls. This multimodal non-invasive approach may increase the specificity of a CCSVI diagnosis in people with MS. Full Content
Dec-2011 MA Williams, A Venkatesan No Endovascular Intervention Without Evaluation in Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency A Call for the IDEAL Model The authors suggest that the IDEAL model: (1) innovation, (2a) development, (2b) exploration, (3) assessment, and (4) long-term implementation and monitoring offers a suitable framework for pursuing CCSVI clinical research. Abstract only
2011 P Niggemann, M Seifert, A Forg, HH Schild, H Urbach, T Krings Positional Venous MR Angiography: An Operator-Independent Tool to Evaluate Cerebral Venous Outflow Hemodynamics Using the Fonar Upright MR imaging system in 15 healthy volunteers, IJV strictures were commonly found in the supine position. Positional MR imaging may help to clarify the CCSVI criteria. Full Content
2011 KD Mandato, PF Hegener, GP Siskin, ZJ Haskal, MJ Englander, S Garla, N Mitchell, L Reutzel, C Doti Safety of endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a report of 240 patients with multiple sclerosis. Endovascular treatment of 240 people with CCSVI was found to be a safe procedure; in the 30 day period following treatment there was a risk of 1.6 % for major complications. Abstract only
2011 K Dolic, B Weinstock-Guttman, K Marr, V Valnorov, E Carl, J Hagemeier, C Brooks, C Kilanowski, D Hojnacki, M Ramanthan, R Zivadinov Risk Factors for Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) in a Large Cohort of Volunteers Data from 252 volunteers without MS found 27.8% had CCSVI. Heart disease (especially murmurs), a history of infectious mononucleosis and irritable bowel syndrome were associated with CCSVI. Use of dietary supplements trended toward less frequent CCSVI diagnosis. Full Content
2011 CA Habib, M Liu, N Bawany, J Garbern, I Krumbein, HJ Mentzel, J Reichenback, C Magnano, R Zivadinov, EM Haacke Assessing Abnormal Iron Content in the Deep Gray Matter of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis versus Healthy Controls Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) was utilized to assess iron content in the gray matter of 52 people with MS and 122 healthy controls. In people younger than 40, 1% of controls and 67% of people with RRMS had abnormally high iron content. Full Content
2011 F Kantarci, S Albayram, NO Demirci, A Esenkaya, D Uluduz, O Uysal, S Saip, A Siva Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: does ultrasound really distinguish multiple sclerosis subjects from healthy controls? A Doppler ultrasound study of 62 people with MS and 54 control subjects found Doppler ultrasound may not be clinically reliable for identifying CCSVI. Variations in vertebral vein flow in people with MS were found. Abstract only
2011 R Williams, CL Buchheit, NEJ Berman, SM Levine Pathogenic implications of iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis Iron accumulates abnormally in the CNS of people with MS. This article reviews mechanisms of iron uptake and its likely roles in MS pathology. Full Content
2011 E Auriel, A Karni, NM Bornstein, T Nissel, A Gadoth, H Hallevi Extra-cranial venous flow in patients with multiple sclerosis Doppler examination was used to assess abnormal venous flow in 27 people with MS and 32 healthy controls. The researchers found no evidence that people with MS have an excess of CCSVI. Abstract only
2011 A Laupacis, E Lillie, A Dueck, S Straus, L Perrier, JM Burton, R Aviv, K Thorpe, T Feasby, J Spears Association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis This meta-analysis found a positive association between CCSVI and MS despite concerns about differences among studies and blinding. Full Content
2011 JA Reekers CCSVI and MS: A Never Ending Story No abstract available. Title Only
2011 JD Werner, GP Siskin, K Mandato, M Englander, A Herr Review of Venous Anatomy for Venographic Interpretation in Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency A review of the normal anatomy of the internal jugular, vertebral and azygos veins to aid in interpreting venograms when evaluating for CCSVI. Abstract only
2011 M Khalil, C Langkammer, S Ropele, K Petrovic, M Wallner-Blazek, M Loitfelder, M Jehna, G Bachmaier, R Schmidt, C Enzinger, S Fuchs, F Fazekas Determinants of brain iron in multiple sclerosis: A quantitative 3T MRI study Iron accumulation in the basal ganglia of people with MS occurred with advancing disease. It was not present in people with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), suggesting iron accumulation does not precede the development of MS. Abstract only
2011 F Doepp, JT Wurfel, CF Pfueller, JM Valdueza, D Petersen, F Paul, SJ Schreiber Venous drainage in multiple sclerosis: A combined MRI and ultrasound study This study of 40 people with MS suggests MRV is more sensitive than Doppler sonography in evaluating IJV narrowing. With MRV, 30%(12) displayed narrowing of 0-50%; 48% (19) narrowing of 51-80%; and 22%(9) narrowing >80%. The authors state a measurable hemodynamic effect is seen only if the narrowing is >80%. Abstract only
2011 S. Bastianello, A Romani, G Viselner, EC Tibaldi, E Giugni, M Altieri, P Ceccoui, L Mendozzi, M Farina, D Marianna, A Galassi, C Quattrini, M Mancini, V Bresciamorra, A Lagace, S McDonald, G Bono, R Bergamaschi Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical Correlates from a Multicentre Study Overall CCSVI was found in 86% of 710 people with MS but the frequency varied between the 6 centres. Age at disease onset and clinical severity were linked to CCSVI. People with progressive MS were more likely to have CCSVI than people with RRMS. Full Content
2011 A Thapar, T Lane, R Nicholas, T Friede, M Ellis, J Assenheim IJ Franklin, AH Davies Systematic review of sonographic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency findings in multiple sclerosis This review of 4 cross sectional studies notes the substantial variation in the strength of association between CCSVI and MS. Trained sonographers and consensus on individual criteria for CCSVI are needed. Full Content
2011 R Zivadinov, GU Poloni, K Marr, CV Schirda, CR Magnano, E Carl, N Bergsland, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, CB Beggs, MG Dwyer, B Weinstock-Guttman Decreased brain venous vascular visibility of susceptibility-weighted imaging venography in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency This study of 59 people with MS found 79.7% met CCSVI criteria as did 18.2% of 33 healthy controls. People with MS with a higher number of venous stenoses showed signficantly decreased venous vasculature in the brain parenchyma. This may indicate reduced metabolism and morphological changes in venous vasculature. Full Content
2011 D Radak, S Tanaskovic, S Marinkovic, Z Antonic, J Kolar Internal jugular vein duplication: a further truncular malformation in a patient with multiple sclerosis Internal jugular vein duplication, a very rare phenomenon, was found in a 55 year old woman being treated for MS. Full Content
2011 N Kipshidze, I Rukhadze, A Archvadze, V Kipiani, N Kipshidze, E Lapiashivili, V Kaloiani Endovascular Treatment of Patients with Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis Endovascular treatment of four people with CCSVI and MS demonstrated positive remission of the disease. A case of MRI improvement was documented. Abstract only
2011 C Zecca, C Gobbi Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A Critical Review The authors critically summarize available evidence on CCSVI and conclude there is insufficient data to establish a clear relationship between CCSVI and MS. Treatment of CCSVI is discouraged. Abstract only
2011 R Zivadinov, M Ramanathan, K Dolic, K Marr, Y Karmon, AH Siddiqui, RH Benedict, B Weinstock-Guttman Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: diagnostic, pathogenetic, clinical and treatment perspectives The authors review suggests there’s an urgent need to validate the spectrum of cranial/extracranial venous anomalies and to establish diagnostic gold standard test(s). Abstract only, abstract in italiano 
2011 LC Flynn, ML Moster Current thoughts on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis The authors propose further research to determine what role, if any, venous insufficiency plays in MS and to determine the most appropriate treatment. Abstract only
2011 JM Burton, K Alikhani, M Goyal, F Costello, C White, D Patry, R Bell, MD Hill Complications in MS Patients After CCSVI Treatment Abroad (Calgary, AB) The authors undertook a chart and patient review of 5 people who came to their medical attention with various complications after treatment for CCSVI. Full Content
2011 D Radak, J Kolar, S Tanaskovic, D Sagic, Z Antonic, A Mitrasinovic, S Babic, D Nenezic, N Ilijevski Morphological and haemodynamic abnormalities in the jugular veins of patients with multiple sclerosis In a study of 64 people with MS and 37 healthy controls people with MS had significantly more internal jugular vein (IJV) morphological changes and haemodynamic abnormalities than healthy controls. Full Content
2011 L Monti, E Menci, M Ulivelli, A Cerase, S Bartalini, P Piu, N Marotti, S Leonini, P Galluzzi, DG Romano, AE Casasco, C Venturi Quantitative Colour Doppler Sonography Evaluation of Cerebral Venous Outflow: A Comparitive Study between Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Controls This Doppler study of cerebral venous outflow (CVF) of 27 healthy adults and 52 people with MS found significant hemodynamic differences. People with MS had increased venous return in the seated position and it seems to be a pathological condition. Full Content
2011 TW Tucker A physics link between venous stenosis and multiple sclerosis Incorporating the perspective of the physics of fluid dynamics, this hypothesis examines the impact on the brain of venous stenosis of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). Abstract only
2011 CA Mayer, U Ziemann CCSVI: Is Blinding the Key? No abstract available. Title Only
2011 PM Bavera, L Mendozzi, R Cavarretta, GB Agus Venous extracranial Duplex ultrasound and possible correlations between multiple sclerosis and CCSVI: an observational study after 560 exams This observational study of 560 patients with MS found a significant number of people had venous outflow problems. Abstract only
2011 P Zamboni, R Galeotti, B Weinstock-Guttman, C Kennedy, F Salvi, R Zivadinov Venous Angioplasty in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Results of a Pilot Study 15 patients with RRMS treated with angioplasty (early and delayed) demonstrated significant improvement in functonal scores compared to baseline. Re-stenosis rate was 27%. Safety of angioplasty was confirmed. Abstract only, sintesi dello studio in parole semplici
2011 G Tsivgoulis, M Mantatzis, C Bogiatzi, K Vadikolias, K Voumvourakis, P Prassopoulos, C Piperidou, I Heliopoulos Extracranial venous hemodynamics in multiple sclerosis: a case control study 43 people with MS and 42 controls were evaluated by Doppler. There was no evidence of stenosis or nondetectable Doppler flow in cervical veins in patients or controls. The data argue against CCSVI as a mechanism in MS. Abstract only
2011 C Baracchini, P Perini, F Causin, M Calabrese, F Rinaldi, P Gallo Progressive multiple sclerosis is not associated with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Doppler examination of 35 people with SPMS, 25 with PPMS and 60 healthy controls found no CCSVI in controls and 6.7% in people with progressive MS. Authors conclude CCSVI is not a late secondary phenomenon of MS and is not associated with disability. Abstract only
2011 E Marder, P Gupta, BM Greenbarg, EM Frohman, AM Awad, B Bagert, O Stuve No Cerebral or Cervical Venous Insufficiency in US Veterans with Multiple Sclerosis This study found no significant difference in the number and type of venous outflow abnormalities in people with MS compared to controls. The study does not support the theory that CCSVI exists in MS. Abstract only
2011 MM Lagana, L Forzoni, S Viotti, S De Beni, G Baselli, P Cecconi Assessment of the cerebral venous system from the transcondylar ultrasound window using virtual navigator technology and MRI A new ultrasound procedure was preliminarily tested on 10 volunteers. This approach allowed them to assess what deep cerebral veins (intra-cranial veins) were visible and their position relative to surrounding brain tissue. Abstract only
2011 D Centonze, R Floris, M Stefanini, S Rossi, S Fabiano, M Castelli, S Marziali, A Spinelli, C Motta, FG Garaci, G Bernardi, G Simonetti Proposed CCSVI criteria do not predict MS risk nor MS severity The authors found no significant differences in CCSVI frequency between 84 MS subjects and 56 control subjects. Furthermore, no differences were found between CCSVI-positive and CCSVI-negative patients in terms of disease duration, time between onset and first relapse, relapsing or progressive disease course, or risk of secondary progression course. The authors conclude CCSVI does not have a role in MS risk nor severity. Abstract only
2011 M D’haeseleer, M Cambron, L Vanopdenbosch, J DeKeyser Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis The authors identify 3 types of vascular dysfunction in people with MS: 1) higher risk for ischaemic stroke; 2) global cerebral hypoperfusion; and, 3) MS pathology that may be the consequence of a chronic state of impaired drainage from the CNS (aka CCSVI) Abstract only
2011 AM Awad, E Mardu, R Milo, O Stuve Multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a critical review This review summarizes available evidence and provides a critical analyis of published data. There is inconclusive evidence to support CCSVI as an etiological factor in people with MS. Endovascular procedures should not be undertaken outside of controlled clinical trials. Full Content
2011 G Zaharchuk, NJ Fischbein, J Rosenberg, RJ Herfkens, MD Dake Comparison of MR and Contrast Venography of the Cervical Venous System in Multiple Sclerosis Both MRV and CV frequently showed venous abnormalities. MRV may need to be improved before it can be used for screening for CCSVI. Full Content
2011 A Waschbisch, A Manzel, RA Linker, De-Hyung Lee Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting? The authors suggest the investigation of vascular concepts in MS seems very worthwhile Full Content
2011 S Ropele, W de Graaf, M Khalil, MP Wattjes, C Langkammer, MA Rocca, A Rovira, J Palace, F Barkhof, M Filippi, F Fazekas MRI assessment of iron deposition in multiple sclerosis The exact mechanism of iron deposition in MS brain tissue and its pathological and clinical significance is largely unknown. Reliable methods to exactly quantify brain iron are needed. Abstract only
2011 G Siskin, K Mandato, M Englander Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis Patients The authors describe what the existing data tell us about a potential association between CCSVI and MS symptoms. Full Content
2011 MD Dake CCSVI: What We Need to Know Now and in the Future The author advocates multidisciplinary collaboration as a necessary step toward answering questions about the relationship between MS and extracranial venous obstruction. Full Content
2011 SM Ranadive, H Yan, M Weikert, AD Lane, MA Linden, T Baynard, RW Motl, B Fernhall Vascular Dysfunction and Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis The authors found resting forearm blood flow was lower in people with MS than controls and attribute this to lower physical activity. Abstract only
2011 Imperial College CCSVI Investigation Group: A Thapar, TR Lane, V Pandev, J Shalhoub, O Malik, M Ellis, IJ Franklin, R Nicholas, AH Davies Internal jugular thrombosis post venoplasty for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency The authors present a case report of jugular thrombosis following venoplasty that required surgical intervention for symptom relief. Full Content
2011 MA Lazzaro, OO Zaidat, N Mueller-Kronast, MA Taqi, D Woo Endovascular therapy for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis This review describes the proposed association between CCSVI and MS, summarizes the current data, and discusses the role of endovascular therapy. Rigorous randomized clinical trials are needed. Full Content
2011 C Baracchini, P Perini, F Causin, M Calabrese, F Rinaldi, P Gallo Letter to Editor Reply No abstract available Title Only
2011 G Avruscio Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis No abstract available Title Only
2011 R Zivadinov, B Weinstock-Guttman, I Pirko Iron Deposition and inflammation in multiple sclerosis: Which one comes first? The relative contribution of iron deposition vs inflammation in the pathogenesis of MS is unknown. Further studies to establish the association between inflammation, reduced blood flow, iron deposition, microglia activation and neurodegeneration are needed. Full Content
2011 R Williams, AM Rohr, WT Wang, IY Choi, P Lee, NEJ Berman, SG Lynch, SM Levine Iron Deposition is independent of cellular inflammation in a cerebral model of multiple sclerosis The findings indicate that iron deposition around vessels can occur independently of inflammation, providing evidence against the hypothesis that iron deposits account for inflammatory cell infiltrates observed in MS. Full Content
2011 I Petrov, L Grozdinski, G Kaninski, N IIiev, M Iloska, A Radev, Safety profile of endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis In a study of 461 people with MS the authors found endovascular therapy appeared to be a safe and reliable method for treating CCSVI. Abstract only
2011 M Tanaka, H Uchizumi, K Tanaka Evaluation of blood flow and the cross-sectional area of the internal jugular vein in Japanese multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica patients In a Doppler study of 17 patients with MS and 11 with NMO no obstruction or stenosis of the internal jugular vein was found. The data do not support the hypothesis of CCSVI. Abstract only
2011 M Simka Commentary: Safety of endovascular treatment for CCSVI and future perspectives No abstract available. Title Only
2011 YD Fragoso The internet racing ahead of the scientific evidence: the case of liberation treatment for multiple sclerosis CCSVI remains controversial and the enthusiasm on the internet does not yet match the scientific evidence as there have been no clinical trials. Full Content
2011 R Zivadinov, M Ramanathan, MG Dwyer, K Marr, RH Benedict, B Weinstock-Guttman Comment on ‘no evidence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency at onset of multiple sclerosis’ No abstract available No official abstract, here synthesis in Pubblication update
2011 AS Fjeldstad, J McDaniel, MA Witman, SJ Ives, J Zhao, JW Rose, J Hannon, DW Wray, RS Richardson Vascular function and multiple sclerosis This study of 14 people with RRMS and 13 controls found impaired vascular function, elevated inflammation and oxidative stress “are not an obligatory accompaniment to MS”. Abstract only
2011 GP Siskin, ZJ Haskal, G McLennan, MD Dake, EM Haacke, S McDonald, W Royal, S Vedanthan, D Hubbard, SJ Sclafani, RT Andrews, H Sauder Development of a Research Agenda for Evaluation of Interventional Therapies for Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: Proceedings from A Multi-Disciplinary Research Consensus Panel The committee consensus is that the mechanisms for evaluating people with MS for jugular and azygous venous compromise and the value of treating these lesions with angioplasty warrant careful, well designed additional study. Full Content
2011 R Zivadinov, K Marr, G Cutter, M Ramanathan, RH Benedict, C Kennedy, M Elfadil, AE Yeh, J Reuther, C Brooks, K Hunt, M Andrews, E Carl, MG Dwyer, D Hojnacki, B Weinstock-Guttman Prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in MS CCSVI prevalence with borderline cases included in the “no CCSVI” group was 56.1% in MS, 42.3% in other neurlogical diseases (OND), 38.1% in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and 22.7% in healthy controls (HC). When borderline bases were excluded, the CCSVI prevalence figures were 62.5% for MS, 45.8% for OND, 42.1% for CIS, and 25.5% for HC. Data suggest CCSVI does not have a primary causative role in MS. Abstract only
2011 R Zivadinov , R Galeotti , D Hojnacki, E Menegatti , MG Dwyer, C Schirda , AM Malagoni , K Marr , C Kennedy , I Bartolomei , C Magnano , F Salvi , B Weinstock-Guttman , P Zamboni P Value of MR Venography for Detection of Internal Jugular Vein Anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Longitudinal Study Ten people with MS and 6 healthy controls underwent several diagnostic tests for CCSVI. The authors conclude conventional MRV has limited value for assessing internal jugular vein (IJV) anomalies for both diagnostic and post treatment purposes Full Content
2011 MP Wattjes, F Doepp, M Bendszus, J Fiehler Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Review article (in German) discussing CCSVI within the context of MS pathology. The authors believe there is conclusive data that the theory of CCSVI is wrong, and question whether venous anomalies should be treated. Abstract only
2011 A Baiocchini, R Roscano, W von Lorch, F Del Nonno Anatomical stenosis of the internal jugular veins: supportive evidence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency? Stenosis of the internal jugular veins (IJV) with impaired venous drainage from the central nervous system was identified in 2 people with MS who died from other causes. Full Content
2011 P Zamboni, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, MG Dwyer, CV Schirda, AM Malagoni, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, N Bergsland, C Magnano, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, R Zivadinov Hypoperfusion of brain parenchyma is associated with the severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional preliminary report This preliminary study investigated the relationship of CCSVI and cerebral hypoperfusion in 16 people with MS and CCSVI and 8 healthy controls. They report a significant relationship between the severity of CCSVI and hypoperfusion. Reduced perfusion could contribute to the known mechanisms of hypoxia in degenerated axons. Full Content, sintesi dello studio in parole semplici
2011 HY Hsu Jugular venous reflux and neurological disorders No abstract available. Title Only
2011 IH Wu, WY Sheng, HH Hu, CP Chung Jugular venous reflux could influence cerebral blood flow: a transcranial Doppler study Transcranial doppler was used to examine changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during Valsava Maneuver (VM). Evidence was found that right IJV reflux influenced CBF. Abstract only
2011 CP Chung, PN Wang, YH Wu, YC Tsao, WY Sheng, KN Lin, SJ Lin, HH Hu More severe white matter changes in the elderly with jugular venous relux In 97 people with a mean age of 75, people with severe jugular venous reflux exhibited more severe age-related white matter changes. These findings offer clues into the pathophysiology of age-related white matter changes Abstract only
2011 M Hartel, E Kluczewska, M Simka, T Ludyga, J Kostecki, M Zaniewski Magnetic Resonance Venography of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with associated multiple sclerosis Magnetic resonance venography of 830 people with MS identified slower blood flow in the internal jugular veins, mostly on the left side. Full Content
2011 JA Reekers, MJ Lee, AM Belli, F Barkhof Cardiovascular and interventional radiological society of europe commentary on the treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency CIRSE believes there is currently no sound basis for performing balloon dilatation, with or without stenting, for CCSVI. Full Content
2011 CA Mayer, W Pfeilschifter, MW Lorenz, M Nedelmann, I Bechmann, H Steinmetz, U Ziemann The perfect crime? CCSVI not leaving a trace in MS This assessment (blinded) of extra- and intracranial venous flow direction of the internal jugular and vertebral veins utilizing colour-coded duplex sonography in 20 people with MS and 20 healthy controls does not support the presence of CCSVI in people with MS. Full Content
2011 EC Tallantyre, JE Dixon, I Donaldson, T Owens, PS Morgan, PG Morris, N Evangelou Ultra-high-field imaging distinguishes MS lesions from aymptomatic white matter lesions This observational study of 28 people with MS and 17 people with cerebral white matter lesions but not MS, found that perivenous lesion location predicted the presence of demyelination. Full Content
2011 M Khalil, C Teunissen, C Langkammer Iron and Neurodegeneration in Multiple in Multiple Sclerosis This article reviews previous research regarding increased iron deposition in the brains of people with MS and notes that the presence of iron and its role in the pathology of MS is still uncertain. Full Content
2011 B Weinstock-Guttman, R Zivadinov, G Cutter, M Tamano-Blanco, K Marr, D Badgett, E Carl, M Elfadil, C Kennedy, R H.B. Benedict, M Ramanathan Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency is Not Associated with HLA DRB1* 1501 Status in Multiple Sclerosis Patients This study evaluated the HLA DRB1*1501 (genetics) status in 268 MS patients and 155 controls and found the presence of CCSVI was independent of HLA DRB1* 1501 status in MS patients. Full Content
2011 R Meyer-Schwickerath, C Haug, A Hacker, F Fink, D Seidel, HP Hartung, MR Haupts Intracranial venous pressure is normal in patients with multiple sclerosis Intracranial venous pressure assessed in 29 MS patients, 28 healthy controls, and 19 cases with elevated intracranial pressure found no evidence of increased intracranial venous pressure in MS patients. Abstract only
2011 EM Haacke Chronic cerebral spinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis Varied evidence that the venous system is associated with MS is presented and a suggestion offered to focus on ‘vascular immunology’ in the study of neurodegenerative diseases. Full Content
2011 C Baracchini, P Perini, M Calabrese, F Causin, F Rinaldi, P Gallo No evidence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency at multiple sclerosis onset Utilizing primarily extracranial and transcranial venous echo-color Doppler sonography as the diagnostic tool no support for a cause-effect relationship between CCSVI and MS was found in this study of 50 people with possible MS (CIS). Abstract only
2011 SV Ramagopalan, CJ Wotton, AE Handel, D Yeates, MJ Goldacre Risk of venous thromboembolism in people admitted to hospital with selected immune-mediated diseases: record-linkage study In a study of the records of people hospitalized in England the authors found those with immune-mediated diseases (including those with MS) had a significantly elevated risk of venous blood clots. Prior to any procedures steps may be taken to try to prevent these. Full Content
2011 P Zamboni, F Carinci Face, brain, and veins: a new perspective for multiple sclerosis onset No abstract available Title Only

 

Dec-2010 A Ghezzi, G Comi, A Federico Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis Literature data in favour and against the CCSVI hypothesis are discussed.A great variability of CCSVI has been found in both MS patients and in control subjects. This large variability is explained by methodological aspects, problems in assessing CCSVI, and differences among clinical series. Abstract only
Dec-2010 T Ludyga, M Kazibudzki, M Simka, M Hartel, M Swierad, J Piegza, P Latacz, L Sedlak, M Tochowicz. Endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficency: is the procedure safe? The authors report on 344 interventions in 331 CCSVI patients with associated multiple sclerosis. The procedures appear to be safe and well tolerated. Long term data on the effects of angioplasty on the course of MS have not been completed. Full Content
Dec-2010 P Zamboni, R Galeotti The chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency syndrome A comprehensive overview of the status of the art of diagnosis and treatment of CCSVI. Venous stenosis in pwMS are most likely related to truncular venous malformations; mostly intraluminal defects like malformed valves and webs. Endovascular treatment is well tolerated by patients and creates a significant post-operative change in venous pressure. Re-stenosis remains elevated in IJV but neglible in the AZ. Full Content
Dec-2010 R. Zivadinov, A Lopez-Soriano, B Weinstock-Guttman, CV Schirda, CR Magnano, K Dolic, CL Kennedy, CL Brooks, JA Reuther, K Hunt, M Andrews, MG Dwyer, DW Hojnacki Use of MR Venography for Characterization of the Extracranial Venous System in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Subjects Using MR venography, this study detected no significant differences in the extracranial venous systems between MS patients and healthy controls. Standardized guidelines are needed to define parameters for the presence of venous anomalies. Full Content
Dec-2010 EM Haacke The Role of MR Imaging in the Diagnosis of CCSVI and in Pre-Treatment Planning and Monitoring Patient Outcomes Pre and post procedure imaging for CCSVI will facilitate the creation of data to better understand the role of the vascular system in MS and other neurological diseases. Full Content
Dec-2010 D Valecchi, D Bacci, M Gulisano, E Sgambati, M Sibilio, M Lipomas, C Macchi Internal jugular vein valves: an assessment of prevalence, morphology and competence by color Doppler echography in 240 healthy subjects The authors confirmed the anatomic variability of internal jugular vein valves and urge studies to determine whether they play an important role in preventing reflux towards the brain Abstract only
Dec-2010 MA Rhodes CCSVI as the Cause of Multiple Sclerosis: The Science Behind the Controversial Theory This book includes a history of MS, an explanation of autotimmunity, and examines recent research relating to the theory of CCSVI and MS and how the venous model compares to the standard model of the disease. Practical ideas for pursuing evaluation and possible treatment are also included. Abstract only
Dec-2010 J Kostecki, M Zaniewski, K Ziaja, T Urbanek, W Kuczmik, E Krzystanek, D Ziaja, T Korzeniowski, E Majewski, M Hartel, M Swiat, U Sioma-Markowska An endovascular treatment of Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis patients–6 month follow-up results 36 patients with MS and CCSVI underwent endovascular treatment. 6 month follow up indicated improvement in fatigue and heat intolerance but no influence on neurological condition. Abstract only
Dec-2010 P Zamboni Regarding No Cerebral Venous Congestion in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, Intraluminal Jugular Septation No abstract available Title Only
2010 SJ Van Rensburg, R Van Toorn The controversy of CCSVI and iron in multiple sclerosis: Is ferritin the key? CCSVI has been suggested to be a possible cause of MS, however, this study reported that while CSF ferritin levels were pathologically raised in patients with superficial siderosis and subarachnoid hemorrhage, a significantly lower number of patients with MS were affected by high ferritin levels. Abstract only
2010 J Oger, M Alkhawajah CCSVI: hope, hype or snake oil ? No abstract available. Title Only
2010 B Weir Multiple sclerosis-a vascular etiology? The vascular hypothesis of multiple sclerosis is a biologically plausible concept. If initial observations are validated trials of angioplasty/stenting are justified in select cases. Abstract only
2010 CP Chung, YJ Lin, AC Chao, SJ Lin, YY Chen, YJ Wang, HH Hu Jugular venous hemodynamic changes with aging The authors note cerebral venous outflow insufficiency via the internal jugular vein (IJV) is associated with several neurological disorders. Research findings suggest the left IJV flow is impeded with age. Abstract only
2010 B Yamout, A. Herlopian, Z Issa, RH Habib, A Fawaz, J Salame, A Wadih, H Awdeh, N Muallem, R Raad, A Al-Kutoubi. Extracranial venous stenosis is an unlikely cause of multiple sclerosis Extracranial venous stenosis was not present in most people early in the disease and rarely involved more than one extracranial vein. It is likely to be a late secondary phenomenon. Abstract only
2010 MP Wattjes, BW van Oosten, WL deGraaf, A Seewann, JC Bot, R van den Berg, BM Uitdehaag, CH Polman, F Barkhof No association of abnormal cranial venous drainage with multiple sclerosis; a magnetic venography resonance and flow quantification study Using MRV and flow quanitification studies, findings suggestive of cranial venous outflow anomalies were frequently observed in 20 people with MS and 20 healthy controls. Abstract only
2010 ES Weiss Reflux, revolution, and the role of forgotten research in medical paradigms The current controversy in MS (auto-immune vs. vascular) is rooted in forgotten medical research. Paradigm shifts are often met with strong resistance. Full Content
2010 KJ Becker Modulation of the Postischemic Immune Response to Improve Stroke Outcome The author notes that immune responses to brain antigens occur following stroke and lymphocytes from stroke survivors show more activity against myelin basic protein (MBP) than the lymphocytes of people with MS. Myelin- reactive T cells are also found in higher numbers among patients with cerebrovascular disease. Full Content
2010 EM Haacke, J Tang, J Neelavalli, YC Cheng Susceptibility Mapping as a Means to Visualize Veins and Quantify Oxygen Saturation Susceptibility maps can successfully create venograms of the brain. Full Content
2010 V Worthington, J Killestein, MJ Eiklenbloom, CE Teunissen, F Barkhof, CH Pohlman, BM Uitdehaag, A Petzhold Normal CSF ferritin levels in MS suggest against etiologic role of chronic venous insufficiency Ferritin levels measured in the CSF of people with MS and other neurological disorders does not support an etiologic role for CCSVI-related parenchymal iron deposition in MS. Abstract only
2010 P. Sundstrom, A Wahlin, K Ambarki, R. Birdgander, A Eklund, J. Malm Venous and cerebrospinal fluid flow in multiple sclerosis: A case control study Using MRI the authors found no evidence confirming the vascular hypothesis of MS. Abstract only
2010 S Sclafani Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: A new paradigm and therapy for multiple sclerosis An overview of CCSVI diagnosis, treatment, aftercare, and outcomes by a clinician.Commentary by Michael Dake and Barry Katzen. Full Content
2010 CA Habib, W Zheng, EM Haacke, S Webb, H Nichol Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology. Full Content
2010 JS Alexander, R Zivadinov, AH Maghzi, VC Ganta, MK Harris, A Minagar Multiple sclerosis and cerebral endothelial dysfunction: Mechanisms. This paper considers the vascular connection to MS and presents the role of cerebral endothelial dysfunction in the progression of the disorder. Abstract only
2010 F Doepp, F Paul, JM Valdueza, K Schmierer, SJ Schreiber No cerebro-cervical venous congestion in patients with multiple sclerosis None of the subjects investigated in this study fulfilled more than one criterion for CCSVI. Our results challenge the hypothesis that cerebral venous congestion plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of MS Full Content
2010 R Zivadinov, C Schirda, MG Dwyer, EM Haacke, B Weinstock-Guttman, E Menegatti, M Heininen-Brown, C Magnano, AM Malagoni, DS Wack, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, N Bergsland, S Hussein, G Poloni, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, P Zamboni Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot case-control study. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis. CCSVI found to be a possibly important mechanism related to iron deposition in the brain parenchyma of MS patients. Abstract only
2010 R Plasmati, F Pastorelli, N Fini, F Salvi, R Galeotti, P Zamboni Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency: report of transcranial magnetic stimulation follow-up study in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Report of transcranial magnetic stimulation examinations and clinical outcome for an MS patient given angioplasty for CCSVI. Abstract only
2010 P Zamboni, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, C Schirda, JL Cox, AM Malagoni, D Hojnacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, MG Dwyer, N Bergsland, R Galeotti, S Hussein, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, M Ramanathan, R Zivadinov CSF dynamics and brain volume in multiple sclerosis are associated with extracranial venous flow anomalies: a pilot study. This study reports on echo-color Doppler and MRI analysis of 16 RRMS patients, concluding that vascular haemodynamic changes occur more frequently in MS patients than controls. Abstract only
2010 AB Lee, J Laredo, R Neville Embryological background of truncular venous malformation in the extracranial venous pathways as the cause of chronic cerebro spinal venous insufficiency. Compares the mechanisms and clinical outcomes of truncular venous malformation (VM) of the liver and CCSVI. Full Content
2010 M Simka, J Kostecki, M Zaniewski, E Majewski, M Hartel Extracranial Doppler sonographic criteria of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in the patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim of this open-label study was to assess extracranial Doppler criteria of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients Abstract only
2010 I Bartolomei, F Salvi, R Galeotti, E Salviato, M Alcanterini, E Menegatti, M Mascalchi, P Zamboni Hemodynamic patterns of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis. Correlation with symptoms at onset and clinical course. Authors discuss the five types of venous malformations and four major (A-D) hemodynamic patterns of anomalous extracranial-extravertebral venous outflow in the 65 MS patients studied by Zamboni. Abstract only
2010 MH Al-Omari, LA Rousan Internal jugular vein morphology and hemodynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis. Hemodynamic abnormalities and morphological changes involving the internal jugular vein are strongly associated with MS. These findings can be demonstrated by a non-invasive, cost effective Doppler ultrasound criteria. Abstract only
2010 EM Haacke, J Garbern, Y Miao, C Habib, M Liu Iron stores and cerebral veins in MS studied by susceptibility weighted imaging. Iron may serve as a biomarker of venous vascular damage in multiple sclerosis. The backward iron accumulation pattern seen in the basal ganglia and thalamus of most MS patients is consistent with the hypothesis of venous hypertension. Abstract only
2010 AM Malagoni, R Galeotti, E Menegatti, F Manfredini, N Basaglia, F Salvi, P Zamboni Is chronic fatigue the symptom of venous insufficiency associated with multiple sclerosis? A longitudinal pilot study. The re-establishment of cerebral venous return dramatically reduces chronic fatigue perception in MS patients with associated CCSVI. Abstract only
2010 E Menegatti, V Genova, M Tessari, AM Malagoni, I Bartolomei, M Zuolo, R Galeotti, F Salvi, P Zamboni The reproducibility of colour Doppler in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency associated with multiple sclerosis. Echo-colour Doppler is a powerful, non-invasive and reproducible tool for screening CCSVI-MS but it needs special training. Abstract only
2010 D Hojnacki, P Zamboni, A Lopez-Soriano, R Galleotti, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, C Schirda, C Magnano, AM Malagoni, C Kennedy, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, R Zivadinov Use of neck magnetic resonance venography, Doppler sonography and selective venography for diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a pilot study in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. The use of MRV for diagnosis of CCSVI in MS patients has limited value, and the findings should be interpreted with caution and confirmed by other imaging techniques such as DS and SV. Abstract only
2010 C Krogias, A Schroder, H Wiendl, R Hohlfeld, R Gold Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis : Critical analysis and first observation in an unselected cohort of MS patients. This paper is critical of CCSVI theory. CCSVI cannot represent the exclusive pathogenetic factor in the pathogenesis of MS. Abstract only
2010 A Ferlini, M Bovolenta, M Neri, F Gualandi, A Balboni, A Yuryev, F Salvi, D Gemmati, A Liboni, P Zamboni Custom CGH array profiling of copy number variations (CNVs) on chromosome 6p21.32 (HLA locus) in patients with venous malformations associated with multiple sclerosis. The copy number variations contained in the HLA locus region in patients with the novel phenotype of CCSVI/venous malformation and MS were mapped in detail, demonstrating a significant correlation between the number of known CNVs found in the HLA region and the number of CCSVI-VMs identified in patients. Full Content
2010 RA Marrie, R Rudick, R Horwitz, G Cutter, T Tyry, D Campagnolo, T Vollmer Vascular comorbidity is associated with more rapid disability progression in multiple sclerosis. Vascular comorbidity (a vascular condition in addition to MS), whether present at symptom onset, diagnosis, or later in the disease course, is associated with a substantially increased risk of disability progression in multiple sclerosis. Full Content
2010 W Qiu, S Raven, JS Wu, WM Carroll, FL Mastaglia, AG Kermode Wedge-shaped medullary lesions in multiple sclerosis. The formation of these wedge-shaped lesions may be related to the pattern of venous drainage in the ventral medulla and raised venous pressure due to CCSVI. Abstract only
2010 O Khan, M Filippi, MS Freedman, F Barkhof, P Dore-Duffy, H Lassmann, B Trapp, A Bar-Or, I Zak, MJ Siegel, R Lisak Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis. At present, invasive and potentially dangerous endovascular procedures as therapy for patients with MS should be discouraged until such studies have been completed, analyzed, and debated in the scientific arena Abstract only
2010 AF Embry Integrating CCSVI and CNS autoimmunity in a disease model for MS The mechanisms by which CCSVI and autoimmunity could potentially work together to create multiple sclerosis are described. Full Content
2010 M Simka, M Zaniewski Reinterpreting the magnetic resonance signs of hemodynamic impairment in the brains of multiple sclerosis patients from the perspective of a recent discovery of outflow block in the extracranial veins. Perfusion MR images of MS patients should be re-interpreted with respect to extracranial venous hemodynamics. Abstract only
2010 M Simka The many sonographic faces of the Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: How to perform doppler examination in a multiple sclerosis patient. Simka describes his protocol for doppler ultrasound use to diagnose CCSVI in MS patients. Full Content

 

Dec-2009 AV Singh, P Zamboni Anomalous venous blood flow and iron deposition in multiple sclerosis This paper describes how iron damages the brain in CCSVI. There is a very good table showing the similarities between CVD, a known venous problem and CCSVI. Full Content, abstract in italiano
Dec-2009 BB Lee, J Bergan, P Gloviczki, J Laredo, DA Loose, R Mattassi, K Parsi, JL Villavicencio, P Zamboni Diagnosis and treatment of venous malformations Consensus Document of the International Union of Phlebology (IUP)-2009. The aim of this document, ratified by venous specialists from 47 nations, is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of venous malformations based on the best currently available scientific evidence. Full Content
2009 EC Tallantyre, PS Morgan, JE Dixon, A Al-Radaideh, MJ Brookes, N Evangelou, PG Morris A comparison of 3T and 7T in the detection of small parenchymal veins within MS lesions. This paper compares use of 3T versus 7T MRI to detect small parenchymal veins within MS lesions, which can help explain the pathogenesis of MS lesions. Abstract only
2009 I Pirko, R Zivadinov Transcranial sonography of deep gray nuclei: a new outcome measure in multiple sclerosis? No abstract available. Title Only
2009 P Zamboni, E Menegatti, B Weinstock-Guttman, C Schirda, JL Cox, AM Malagoni, D Hojanacki, C Kennedy, E Carl, MG Dwyer, N Bergsland, R Galeotti, S Hussein, I Bartolomei, F Salvi, R Zivadinov The severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. This paper discusses the small cohort followed at JNI after being treated in Italy by Dr. Zamboni’s team. Their work shows with echo-doppler and 3T MRI that the venous issues impair CSF flow. Full Content
2009 P Zamboni, G Consorti, R Galeotti, S Gianesini, E Menegatti, G Tacconi, F Carinci Venous Collateral Circulation of the Extracranial Cerebrospinal Outflow Routes This paper addresses the presence of collateral circulation and how this affects the MS patient.The nosologic pattern of CCSVI identified and associated with MS results in significant overloading of collateral venous pathways. Full Content
2009 M Simka Blood brain barrier compromise with endothelial inflammation may lead to autoimmune loss of myelin during multiple sclerosis. This paper proposes mechanisms by which the venous drainage problems in MS patients, identified by Zamboni, could trigger the immune response characteristic of MS. Abstract only
2009 Y Ge, VM Zohrabian, EO Osa, J Xu, H Jaggi, J Herbert, EM Haacke, RI Grossman Diminished visibility of cerebral venous vasculature in multiple sclerosis by susceptibility-weighted imaging at 3.0 Tesla. SWI may afford a noninvasive and relatively simple method to assess venous oxygen saturation so as to closely monitor disease severity, progression, and response to therapy. Full Content
2009 C Franceschi The unsolved puzzle of multiple sclerosis and venous function. The author describes the lack of study into the influence of venous function as it relates to the CNS, and discusses Dr. Zamboni’s discovery of CCSVI. Abstract only
2009 P Zamboni, R Galeotti, E Menegatti, AM Malagoni, S Gianesini, I Bartolomei, F Mascoli, F Salvi A prospective open-label study of endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency This paper summarizes results 18 months after “Liberation Procedure” on 65 MS patients.Study included 35 RRMS, 20 SPMS, 10 PPMS patients treated.CCSVI endovascular treatment significantly improved MS clinical outcome measures, especially in the RR group. Full Content
2009 EM Haacke, M Makki, Y Ge, M Maheshwari, V Sehgal, J Hu, M Selvan, Z Wu, Z Latif, Y Xuan, O Khan, J Garbern, RI Grossman Characterizing iron deposition in multiple sclerosis lesions using susceptibility weighted imaging. In this paper the researchers consider SWI for multiple sclerosis.27 MS patients underwent scans.Researchers classified six types of lesions.This paper proposes that the amount of iron deposition in MS patients may be a key clinical biomarker. Full Content
2009 S Mittal, Z Wu, J Neelavalli, EM Haacke Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 2 This paper considers specific disorders that SWI may be applicable for. Full Content
2009 EM Haacke, S Mittal, Z Wu, J Neelavalli, Y-CN Cheng Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects and Clinical Applications, Part 1 This paper presents a variety of neurovascular and neurodegenerative disease applications for SWI technology. Full Content
2009 P Zamboni, E Menegatti, R Galeotti, AM Malagoni, G Tacconi, S Dall’Ara, I Bartolomei, F Salvi The value of cerebral Doppler venous haemodynamics in the assessment of multiple sclerosis. This paper summarizes the second large doppler study.The study used doppler to test 109 MS patients and 177 controls, including people with OND and other vascular diseases. Abstract only
2009 P Zamboni, R Galeotti, E Menegatti, A M Malagoni, F Mascoli, S Dall’Ara, I Bartolomei, F Salvi Rationale and preliminary results of endovascular treatment of multiple sclerosis, the liberation procedure Preliminary results on the first group of patients treated with endovascular procedures to return cerebral circulation to normal are reported here. Full Content

 

2008 P Zamboni, R Galeotti, E Menegatti, A M Malagoni, G Tacconi, S Dall’Ara, I Bartolomei, F Salvi Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis 65 MS patients and 235 controls were tested for venous abnormalities using doppler high resolution examination.The MS patients also underwent selective venography. A strong correlation was found between MS and venous abnormalities. Full Content
2008 E Menegatti, P Zamboni Doppler Haemodynamics of Cerebral Venous Return The authors provide a protocol for combined high-resolution echo-colour-Doppler (ECD) and transcranial colour coded Doppler sonography (TCCS) examination of the veins that drain the central nervous system. Full Content
2008 Y Ge, VM Zohrabian, RI Grossman 7T MRI: New Vision of Microvascular Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis This study uses 7 Tesla MRI techniques to show association between venous components and MS lesions.Paper includes high resolution images. Full Content
2008 M Nicolson, C McLaughlin Social constructionism and medical sociology: a study of the vascular theory of multiple sclerosis The authors discuss how different approaches to the pathogenesis of MS are based on the expertise, skills and interests of those involved. The debate about the causation and treatment of MS occurs between a large and powerful social group (neurologists, immunologists and grant funders) and groups that are weak and marginal (in this case those with vascular expertise). The burden of proof lies with the weak and marginal group. Full Content
2008 M Simka, Z Rybak Hypothetical molecular mechanisms by which local iron overload facilitates the development of venous leg ulcers and multiple sclerosis lesions. This paper suggests that the mechanisms by which the body forms venous leg ulcers and multiple sclerosis lesions are similar. Abstract only
2008 DG Talbert Raised venous pressure as a factor in multiple sclerosis. This paper hypothesizes that excessive venous hypertension may cause the blood brain barrier breach characteristic of MS. Abstract only

 

2007 P Zamboni, E Menegatti, I Bartolomei, R Galeotti, AM Malagoni, G Tacconi, F Salvi Intracranial Venous Haemodynamics in Multiple Sclerosis This paper describes the first doppler study of 89 MS patients and 60 controls.This first study was not blinded; the purpose was to discover how venous drainage in MS patients might be consistently assessed with doppler. Full Content
2007 P Zamboni Cerebro spinal venous outflow impairment and multiple sclerosis: a new challenge? Dr. Zamboni discusses how CCSVI and iron deposition can be related to MS. Full Content

 

2006 P Zamboni The Big Idea: Iron-dependent inflammation in venous disease and proposed parallels in multiple sclerosis This first Zamboni paper begins the process of correlating venous disease with MS, by relating the iron deposition and inflammation found in Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) to that seen in MS. Full Content
2006 A Minagar, W Jy, J J Jimenez,J S Alexander Multiple sclerosis as a vascular disease This paper focuses on MS as a central nervous system disease with a strong vascular component and looks at the role of cerebral endothelial cells in the loss of the blood brain barrier. Full Content

 

2000 IL Tan, RA van Schijndel, PJW Pouwels, MAA van Walderveen, JR Reichenbach, RA Manoliu, F Barkhof MR Venography of Multiple Sclerosis High-resolution MR venography enables us to visualize, in vivo, the venous architecture in great detail in relation to MS lesions in the brain. Full Content
1998 BH Juurlink The multiple sclerosis lesion: initiated by a localized hypoperfusion in a central nervous system where mechanisms allowing leukocyte infiltration are readily upregulated? A theory is presented that the MS lesion is initiated as a reduction in blood flow to a localized region of white matter. Abstract only
1997 SM LeVine Iron deposits in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease brains. Iron may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurological diseases by promoting oxidative damage. Abstract only
1994 M Imai, Y Hanaoka, O Kemmotsu Valve injury: a new complication of internal jugular vein cannulation The authors found the internal jugular vein valve plays an important role in preventing retrograde blood flow to the brain Full Content
1994 AJ Wakefield, LJ More, J Difford, JE McLaughlin Immunohistochemical study of vascular injury in acute multiple sclerosis An examination of central nervous system tissue in 3 cases found vascular changes prior to cerebral parenchymal reaction and demyelination which were not seen in controls. The authors propose vascular endothelial cell activation may be an early and pivotal event in the evolution of multiple sclerosis, and that demyelination may have an ischaemic basis in this condition. Full Content
1988 CW Adams Perivascular iron deposition and other vascular damage in multiple sclerosis. The cerebral vein wall in multiple sclerosis is subject to chronic inflammatory damage, which promotes hemorrhage and increased permeability, and constitutes a form of vasculitis. Full Content
1986 FA Schelling Damaging venous reflux into the skull or spine: relevance to multiple sclerosis. The importance of elucidating the neuropathological and clinical implications of undue reflux into the skull or spine is deduced from the probability of relations between localized backflow into the craniovertebral space and multiple sclerosis. Abstract only
1985 CW Adams, RN Poston, SJ Buk, YS Sidhu, H Vipond Inflammatory vasculitis in multiple sclerosis. The authors find venous inflammatory vasculitis in multiple sclerosis lesions. Abstract only
1985 FA Schelling Multiple Sclerosis: The Image and its Message- The Meaning of the Classic Lesion Forms This full length book was written by Dr. Schelling during the 1980s and later published online.Dr. Schelling’s sons made the book available in its entirety in 2004 at the site ms-info.net. Full Content
1984 JC Walton, JC Kaufmann Iron deposits and multiple sclerosis. Iron was detected in the lesions of 13 MS patients’ autopsy material. Abstract only
1975 CW Adams The onset and progression of the lesion in multiple sclerosis. Adams details the characteristics of an MS lesion, including a vein at the center of the plaque. Abstract only
1942 RS Dow, G Berglund Vascular Pattern of Lesions Of Multiple Sclerosis There is a relationship between the cerebrovascular system and lesions of multiple sclerosis. Abstract only
1939 B. Schlesinger The Venous Drainage of the Brain, With Special Reference to the Galenic System Observations of venous drainage issues and their effect on the brain. Full Content
1937 TJ Putnam, A Adler Vascular Architecture of the Lesions of Multiple Sclerosis Vascular abnormality is primary to MS lesions Abstract only
1937 TJ Putnam Evidences of Vascular Occlusion in Multiple Sclerosis and Encephalomyelitis Experimental work of Putnam shows that MS lesions can be produced by a local circulatory disturbance related to venous obstruction. Abstract only
1935 TJ Putnam Encephalitis and Sclerotic Plaques Produced by Venular Obstruction There is a venous obstruction factor in MS lesions. Abstract only
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